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PathogenCharactersitics Diseases Symptoms Staphylococcus aureusProduces coagulase, produces penicliase, Local: lesions on skinSystematic: when local moves inside body Osteomyelitis when it gets in bones - most serious pathogen of staph - dangerous because it resist many disinfectants and antibiotics - most frequently isolated from the nostrils - common infection is follicultits - staph will not be present in a hamburger - a foreign object can hold all types of staph - catalase test will differentiate staph and strep Pneumonia , food intoxication, scalded skinMRSAResistant to methicillin (hospital strength) Staphylococcus epidermis Normal resident of skin and hair follicles- opportunistic and nosocomial infections with medical divides Streptococcus pyogenesLikes throat, nasopharynx, and skin Erythrogenic, toxin that causes scarlet feverCommon on fomites - most serious strep pathogen - TSS strep toxin acts as superantigens StrepTSS Streptococcus agalactiae- group b- pathogen found in the vagina - causes neonatal, would, and skin infections - transfer to babies during delivery Strep Streptococcus pneumoniaePrimarily affects immunocomprimised patients - heavily encapsulated, diploccous - common cause of bacterial pneumonia and attacks patients with weakened respiratory defenses - major virulence factor is the capsule Meningitis and otitis media (middle ear) - fever- cough- cyanosis Viridans streptococci- can form biofilms on tissues- implicated by dental caries - subacute endocarditis, mass colonization of heart valves following dental procedure Neisseria gonorrhoeaeMucous membranesInvade epithal cells - could cause infertility- could lead to salpingitis (mixed anaerobic infection of adomen) - virulence factors include fimbriae that promote attachment, surface molecules that promote attachment, IgA protease, and fimbriae that slow phagocytosis - gram negative diplococci - discharge - infection of deeper reproductive structures may causescarring -Neisseria meningitidis- begins when bacteria enters the blood stream and passes into the cranial circulation and multiplies in meninges and brain- releases endotoxin and causes hemorrhage andshcok - occurs as an epidemic- human carriers - spread by respritory secretions and droplets Bacillus - aerobic genus and is causative agent of AnthraxAnthracisSanthrax, a zoonis that exist in cutaneious, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal forms - bacillus primary live in the soil - textile workers are the most at risk - Cutaneous enters trhough small cuts and abrasions in the skin - Vaccine is an inactivated toxin - Virulence: polypeptide capsule and exotoxins - Pulmonary: inhalation of spores - Gastrointestinal: ingested spores - Treated with penicillin, tetracycline or ciprofloxacin - Vaccines: live spores and toxoid to protect livestock Clostridium perfringensS- anaerobic genus whose members exert their effects primarily thorough the relaes of powerful exotonis ec attacks a specific tissue - virulecnce factors: alpha toxin (causes RBC rupture, edema and tissue destruction, collagenase, hylauronidase, DNase- 2nd most common form of food poisoning world wide, symptoms caused by the bacterial infection, not a toxin made by the bacteria -- causes gas gangrene ingestion could cause food poisoning Clostridium botulinumS- intoxification associtated with canned foods - paralyzes the muscles of the respritory tract - chemical released is acetylcholine - rare but severe - common in soil and water- treated with penicillin - acts on neuromuscular junction Botulism Clostridium difficileS- antibiotic associated colitis (gastrointestinal infection acquitted duing drug therapy - normal resident of colon - major cause of diarrhea in hospitals Lock jaw, a neuromuscular disease Clostridium tetaniS- causes teatuns when tetanospasmin affects the cental nervous system - common resident of soil, and GI tracts of animals- pathology: neurotoxin causes paralysis by binding to motor nerve endings, blocking the release of neurotransmitter for inhibiting muscle contraction muscles and contract uncontrollably - death most often due to paralysis of respiratory muscles - control with penicillin or tetracycline and muscle relaxants -Tetanus Listeria monocytogenesNS- food infection associated with contaminated meat and dairy products - lives in the soil and water Food poisoning Corynebacterium diphtheriaNS- aerobic rod with metachormaic granules and palisades arrangement - most important virulence factor is diptherotoxin - targets the heart and nervous system -diphtheria Sore throatNausea VomitingSwollen lymph nodesMycobacterium tuberculosisNS- divided into pulmonary infections involving formation tubercles in the lungs - destruction of lysosomes w/in macrophages cord factor - occupation does not affect susceptibility to TB- infection sites is the tubercules - produce no exotoxins or enzymes --- acid fast staining- strict aerobes- produce catalase - possess mycolic acids and unique type of peptidoglycan - grow slowly TB Violent coughingGreenish or bloody sputumFeverAnorexiaWeight lossFatigue Mycobacterium lepraeNS- chronic disease that begins in the skin but quickly moves to the nerves - Tuberculiod leprosy is superficial eherase leprotomatious leprosy cause more sever disfigurement - Cant be grown in the lab - Not highly virulent- Appears that health and living conditions influence susceptibility and the course of disease Leprosy Pseudomonas aeruginosa- opportunistic causing infections in compromisedhost such as burn patients and those suffering from cystic fibrosis - pneumonia is the most common infection in a compromised host -Pneumonia Nosocomial infectionsUTIAbscessesOtitis Corneal disease - drug resistance -E. coli- responsible for infantile diarrhea and uti - cattle is the resvoir for e coli 0157: H7 - responsible for most travel related gastrointestinal diseases entertoxigenic Food poisoning and pneumonia Salmonella typhi- typhoid fever - spread by humans through contaminated food and water Salmonella enteritidis + othersNon coliformLactose negative enterics- spread through contaminated meat, milk, and dairy - humans primary res - antibiotic resistance rise bc adding antibiotics to animal feeds ShigellaNon coliform lactose neg - spread by feces, fingers, food, and fomites - virulence factor common to all gram neg bacteria is endotoxin - lipid A of lipopolysaccharide accounts for most of its adverse effects - primary pathogen for enteric group - shigellosis can be spread

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LSC BIOL 2401 - Notes

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