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Biology Review1. Cell: The smallest organization2. What are the 3 parts of the cell theory? - cells are the smallest unit of life- all living organisms are made up of cells- all cells come from preexisting cells3. Structures of prokaryotic cells (what are they and what do they do) - Plasma membrane: controls what gets in and out of the cell - Cytoplasm: do not contain organelles but help support the cell- Chromosome: dna material - Nucleoid: has all the genes needed for survival and growth (sex pilli helpsdivide it) - Ribosomes: build proteins by translating sent from DNA- Cell wall: acts as cytoskeleton- Flagella: helps move the cell4. Structures of Eukaryotic: - Plasma membrane: Allows stuff to pass through, cell signaling, cell adhesion - Cytoplasm: contains organelles. Highway of the cell- Nucleus: (double bound) Location of the genome, gene regulation, organization and protection of the chromosomes via the nuclear matrix- Ribosomes: is the site of polypeptide synthesis- RER: Site of protein sorting and secretion - SER: Site of detoxification and lipid synthesis- Golgi apparatus: Site of modification sorting of lipids and proteins - Peroxisomes: Site where hydrogen peroxide and other harmful moleculesare broken down- Lysosomes: (double membranes) site where macromolecules are degraded - Mitochondria: (double membrane) site of ATP. Semiautonomous - Vacuoles: provides storage - Chloroplast: photosynthesis. Semiautonomous - Cytoskeleton: protein filaments that provide shape and aid in movement - Cell wall: only in plant cell. Provides structure - Flagella/cilia: cilia fused microtubules together whereas flagella moves the cell5. What is the endomembrane system comprised of and what does it achieve? - functions: protein synthesis, modification, sorting, transport- Golgi, RER,SER, Nuclear envelope, lysosomes/vacuoles, peroxisomes, plasma membrane. 6. How is the plasma membrane selectively permeable? With positive and negative charges they have to be pumped with energy and some molecules are too big to move through the pores in the membrane7. Are saturated fats solid or liquid at room temp? solid.8. What is cholesterols role in the plasma membrane? Helps maintain the integrity of the cell and helps firmness but still helps maintain fluidity. It also helps secure important proteins in the membrane 9. General characteristics of passive transport:- diffusion: move from high to low concentration- facilitated diffusion: o passive diffusion: transport of a substance across membrane. High to low. No energy needed. o Active transport: moves substance from low to high. Against concentration gradient requires atp 10. General characteristics of active transport: - small molecules: o channels: cell membrane. Gated channels o transporters: bind to solutes in a hydrophilic pocket and undergo a conformational change that switches the exposure of the pocket from one side of the membrane to the other. Uniporters: bind a single ion or molecule and transport across the membrane. Symporter (contransporters) bind 2 or more ions or molecules and transport in the same direction. Antiporters: bind two or moreion or molecules and transport in opposite directions o pumps: potassium protein pump and etc- large molecules: endocytosis: secreted into cell and then lysosome breaksit down Exocytosis: leaves cell and released in extracellular region 11. General features of cell communication: - why do cells need to communicate with each other? Coordinate function, apoptosis, so they know when to divide 12. Cellular receptors and their activation: - describe 3 major types of cell surface receptors, and give ex of each: o Enzyme linked: receptor tyrosine kinases o G protein coupled receptors: common in animals. Can bind to GTPo Ligand gated ion: gated channels 13. Signal transduction and the cellular response: - outline the basic mechanism of different types of signal transduction pathways. - What is the significance of kinase cascades: protein kinases phosphorylates and activates another kinase then activates another. (amplifies signals), external signals can lead to changes in gene expression, multiple steps leading to kinase activations can result in cells having different response depending on the presence of absence of target proteins, multiple steps in a activation mean that abnormal stimulation ofa cell response such as growth can occur with mutations in more that one gene- Relate the function of second messengers to signal transduction pathways: second messengers relay info from the receptor ligand complex. They can amplify the signal14. hormonal signaling in multicellular

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LSC BIOL 2401 - Biology Review

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