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SYG2010 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDEGOVERNMENT AND POLITICSGovernment: is a system of social control under which the right to make laws, and the right to enforce them, is given to a particular group in society. Government power can be held by one individual, a few, or a majority. - We distinguish between forms of government on the basis of its organizational structure and the degree of control exercised over the society.Totalitarianism: every aspect of people's lives is controlled.Politics: the social institution that guides our decisions on how we livePolitical economy: the economic and political life of a nation or world regionDifferent types of government- Democracy: Supreme power is given to the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation. Democratic countries have free elections where all citizens have a vote.- Monarchy: Rule by a single person (a king or queen), who is the permanent head of state. The term is now used to refer to countries with hereditary rulers. This means that rule is passed down from parent to child. - Theocracy: In a theocracy, government leaders are members of the clergy (church officials), and the state's legal system is based on religious law. - Dictatorship: A government in which a single leader or party exercises absolute control over all citizens and every aspect of their lives.- Transitional: A transitional government is one that is in the process of changing from one form to anotherWhat are the views on government involvement and why?Liberals: - Do not support government involvement in personal choice issues- Threatens individual freedom- Support strong government involvement in social welfare programsConservatives: - Do not support government involvement in market system- Threatens individual freedom- Support government involvement in issues of security and moralityWhat are the views on capitalism and why? - Promotes inequality- Produces social problems because the object is profit, not social justiceEconomy: the social institution that organizes production, distribution, and consumption of goods and servicesSystems of economy• Capitalism: Natural resources and means of producing goods are privately owned.o Benefit: Increased standard of living, competition drives innovation.o Problems: Easy to replace human labor, high level of economic inequality. • Socialism: Apolitical and economic system in which some businesses are controlled by the government rather than by individuals.o Benefits: Meets the needs for everyone, fewer sharp distinctions between social classes. o Problems: Controlled by government, reduces work incentives and technological development. Socialism vs. Communism: Socialism is liberal in the sense that, ideally, everyone has a say in how the economy works through voting. Communism is conservative in the sense that power is concentrated at the top. Authoritarian rule: Political system that denies popular participation in government.Mixed economies: combine aspects of capitalism and socialism. No economy is purely capitalist or socialist: most are mixtures of both.Types of corporations: businesses with a legal existence, including rights and liabilities, separate from that of their members- Monopoly: domination of an entire market by a single company- Oligopoly: domination of a market by a few companies- Conglomerate: giant corporation composed of any smaller corporations- Megamergers: The ten largest mergers in U.S. history have occurred in the last 15 yearsWhat is the connection between corporate communities and politics?- Interlocking directorates: social networks made up of people who serve as directors of several corporations at the same timeo Direct interlock: individual serves on the board of directors of two companieso Indirect interlock: two companies have a director on the board of a third company- Special interest groups: political alliances of people interested in some economic or social issueo Lobbying: effort to influence government officialsPolitical action committees (PACs): organizations formed by special-interest groups to raise and spend money in support of political goalsDo corporate communities impact politics and social policies? Corporations tend to interfere in the internal affairs of other nations in order to protect their investments and maximize profits.How does money undermine democracy in America? The use of corporate money for campaign financing puts the political system up for sale.1. It makes it harder for government to solve social problems. 2. The have-nots of society are not represented among the decision makers. 3. The money chase creates part-time elected officials and full-time fundraisers.4. Money diminishes the gap between the two major political parties. 5. Money discourages voting and civic participation. 6. Special interests get special access to the decision makers. Who Rules America? - The power elite: small group is made up of the top military, political, and business leaders who make decisions that direct the country.o They get what they want by systemic imperatives: the institutions of society are patterned to produce prearranged results that promote the status quo.Military industrial complex: An alliance of military leaders and weapons producers who presumably have a vested interest in an aggressive foreign policy. Privatization: a process in which resources are converted from state ownership to private ownership.CRIME AND CRIMINAL JUSTICECrime: an act or the omission of an act that is a violation of a federal, state, or local criminal law for which some governmental body can apply sanctions.Crime as a Major Social Problem: Since lawbreakers do not hold up to their end of the bargain, they are a threat to social order. Three main types of stats to measure crime: Official statistics; Victimization surveys; and Self-report offender surveysWhy do we say that crime is socially defined? How are these terms associated?Because norms/laws/crime are different across time and space it demonstrates it’s socially constructed. - Ex: What’s a crime in 2014 in Tallahassee might not be a crime in Denver.Other reasons why crime is considered a social problem: There is no society without crime and criminals acquire interests, abilities, and means of self-justification through social relationships with others.Violent Crimes: Are against people (murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault)Non-violent crime: Are against property (arson, burglary, larceny,

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