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Evolution Study Guide: Natural Selection:o Reproductive success is measured by an individual’s ability to survive to reproductive age and to produce viable offspring.o _________________ the frequency of advantageous mutations and __________________ the frequency of deleterious mutations.o Fixation:o Positive Selection:o Negative Selection: Gene Pool: Populations: Mutation:o Mutation rates commonly occur in natural populations at a fairly low rate, yet they are ultimately the most important source of genetic variation in the population gene pool.o ________________ genetic variation.o Somantic Mutation:o Germ-Line Mutation:o Mutations can be harmful, neutral, or beneficial. Deleterious: Neutral: Advantageous: Recombination: Adapted: Allele Frequencies: Fixed: Phenotype: Genotype: Evolution: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium:o Describes situations in which allele and genotype frequencies do NOT change.o Evolution also doesn’t occur.o Equations predict genotype frequencies from allele frequencies and vice versa.o Conditions: p + q = 1o p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 Population sizes are typically ____________________ from generation to generation.o Because resources are ____________________o This imbalance suggests that in each generation, many fail to survive or reproduce because there’re simply not enough resources. Limited resources means ___________________.o Some in a population are better adapted to survive because they have ___________________________.o Competitive Advantage:o Fitness: Changes in a population take ______________. The Modern Synthesis is a marriage between Mendelian genetics and Darwinian evolution.o The traits studies by Mendel were _________________, meaning they had ______________________________________________________.o Most of the variation we see in natural populations is _____________________ and happens across a spectrum. Balancing Selection: Heterozygote Advantage:o Results in selection that ensures that both alleles remain in the population at intermediate frequencies. Stabilizing Selection: Directional Selection: Disruptive Selection: Artificial Selection:o Can create a population in which the selected phenotype is far removed from that of the starting population. Sexual Selection:o Can _______________ an individual’s reproductive success. Migration:o Gene Flow:o Reduces genetic variation between the two populations because they are more like each other. Genetic Drift:o Random Genetic Drift:o Particularly important in ________________ populations.o Bottleneck Effect:o Founder Event: Pseudogene: Random Mating (see lab

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UConn BIOL 1108 - Evolution Study Guide

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