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Multicellula rity:1. Why be multicellular?2. First multicellular organism  575 mya3. Complex Multicellular Organisms (CMO):a. Specialized cellsb. Evolved from SMO’s.c. Requirements for complex multicellular life:i.ii.iii.d. Small subset of tissue reserved for reproduction.e. It’s a three-dimensional organism, so not every cell is exposed to the external environment.i. Some cells are buried w/in tissues and are relatively far from direct access to nutrients.ii. Interior cells don’t receive signals from the environment, but cells still need to grow, reproduce, and survive.iii. Therefore, they require mechanisms for ____________________ environmental signals received by external cells.f. Development increasing or decreasing ___________________________________ in response to ______________________________ molecular signals from surrounding cells.g. Evolved at least 6 separate times..4. Simple Multicellular Organisms (SMO):a. Filaments, hollow balls, sheetsb. Little- differentiation or specializationc. How do the cells stick together? d. What are the limitations of SMO’s?e. What are the advantages of SMO’s?f. Retain many functions, including reproduction.i. How does cell death in SMO’s compare to CMO’s?g. Every cell is in direct/close contact with the ________________________________________.h. Commonly cells that eat other microorganisms, ingest small organism parts, live suspended in water columns, or that are parasitic.5. Coenocytic:a. Results in large cells with ____________ nuclei.b. What are the advantages?c. What are the disadvantages?6. Diffusion:a. What is its function?b. What is the main disadvantage?c. Some organisms have adapted ways to circumvent the limitations posed by diffusion.i. Ex: sponges have canals in their bodies to ensure that all cells are in close contact w/ the environment.7. Bulk Transport:a. An _______________ (requires E) process that allows multicellular organisms to __________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________.8. Adhesion:a. In animals, cells are organized into sheets of epithelia that line the inside and outside cover of the body.i. Cells adhere to one another by means of ____________________________________________.ii. Integrins, cadherins, and _________________________________ provide molecular mechanisms for adhesion.b. In plants, the cells synthesize adhesive molecules.i.

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UConn BIOL 1108 - Multicellularity

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