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NYU CFI-UF 101 - Midterm Cultural Foundations Review

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Midterm Cultural Foundations ReviewChapter 2: Art of the Ancient Near East:- Overview: Mesopotamia (literally: “Land between two rivers” and today known as fertile crescent) occupied villages that later turned into city-states each with their own gods and governments. Traded with other cultures, had social hierarchies, and developed specialized skills in pottery, metal etc. Each city had own deity and religious building and services. Fertile land and defenseless city-states leads to political upheaval. Power ranges from north vs.south and internal vs. external invaders. First in control were Sumerians (south 3500-2340 BCE ) who created literacy, art/architecture, and technology. Next Akkadians (north) came to power but were conquered by people in the north soon after. Then Sumeriansregained power. Next were Amorites (south), fromwhich King Hammurabi and his society came about. o Sumer: 3500-2340 BCE: established literacy,art/architecture, and technology. First written script(3400-3200 BCE) using clay tablets. Also createdZiggurats (stepped structures with shrine on top –high up to avoid flooding and to show wealth,prestige, and glorification of gods). 2-1 Stele of Naram-Sin: - Time period : 2200’s BCE- Place : Sippar, Near East (Akkadian Ruler)- Significance : Portrays a strong statement of military andpolitical capabilities. Use of Hierarchic Scale: Naram-Sin is made to look larger and more powerful than allothers sculpted. He wears a helmet with horns, a sign ofgodliness, claiming his divinity. The soldier with a spear1in his neck shows Naram-Sin’s opponents defeat. His men look up at him and stand in uniform, ready for battle. The stones shape aligns perfectly with the mountain sculpted in it. 2-5 Votive Figures:- Time Period : 2900-2600 BCE- Place : Near East (Sumerian)- Significance : Figures of men and women dedicated to gods. The figures show their dedication to the Gods through their posture, their hands, and their wide eyes. They are focused and in aweof their gods. Conventions areseen in these votive figures intheir faces, cylindrically shapedbodies and clothing, and theirbeards. Sumerian way ofworshipping was to gaze withopen eyes at the Gods. Men aremuscular with big shoulder andheavy legs. 2-7/2-8 The Great Lyre with Bull’sHead:- Time period : 2600-2500 BCE- Place : Ur, Near East (Sumerian)- Significance : Found in burial plot of woman who played it at royal funeral ceremony. Bull’s head and front panel was part of a sound box that deteriorated over time. Panel seems to relate to epic of Gilgamesh with scorpion men and the man at the top of the panel, battling two bulls on either side may be Gilgamesh himself. He looks like he is in control of the bulls, but the have human face, and they are perfectly symmetrical. Also, the man’s penis is bigger than the bulls’ penises, showing his strength and power. 22-15 Stele of Hammurabi:- Time period : 1792-1750 BCE- Place : Sippar, Near East (Ammorites)- Significance : Hammurabi standing with god Shamash(sun/justice god) with rays of light coming out of godsshoulders. Sits with horned cap and gives laws toHammurabi, found on the bottom half of the stone. God-given laws are a tradition seen in Near East (later withMoses and 10 commandments). Stele gives laws – uniformstreatment of people, justice to prevail and destroywicked,cannot opress each other. Porperty matters,physical assault etc. Punishments based on wealth, classgender. Wealthy, men, and citizens all favored overinferiors. Famous for: eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth etc. Regulated laws and punishments rather than letting arulers mood decide. And, set precedent for writing onstones. 2-17 Assurnasirpal II Killing Lions:- Time Period : 870’s BCE- Place : Near East (Assyrian) - Significance : Assurnasirpal II is on his chariot shooting alion behind him, with a dead lion underneath his chariot. Aceremonial Lion hunt where king is protected by men withweapons and kills animals behind him in enclosed area.Depicts a change in Mesopotamian art – goes from serious/solemn to dramatic/emotional/realistic showing a real action event. A relief (cut into stone, not completely through like a statue, but more than a painting) is shown,but a Low relief – not jumping out too much. 32-19 Guardian Figures at Gate A of the Citadel of Sargon II- Time Period : 721-706 BCE- Place : Dur Sharrukin, Near East (Assyrian)- Significance : Guardian figures at palace in Assyrian capital. They are known as Lamassus and have a bearded human head with the body of a lion or bull, eagle wings, horned headdress of a god (power/divinity – similar to Naram-Sin). Braided beards show specific detail. 2-22 Ishtar Gate: - Time Period : 575 BCE- Place : Babylon - Significance : The ceremonial entrance to the city along the processional way road. It has 4 crenellated towers (notches for military defense) as a symbol of Babylonia’s power. Lions for Ishtar goddess, dragons for Marduk god, and bullsfor Adad (storm) god. Used stone material with a colored glass glazed on top. Through the gates details we appreciate how different cultures express their beliefs through art and relate to people who came after. 4Chapter 3: Art of Ancient Egypt:Overview: The nile is the longest river in the world that overflows several months a year, leaving behind fertile land. In 8000 BCE cvilizations lived off of fish, game and plants. In 5000 BCE, they had devloped an agricultural system called basin irrigation(managing flood waters of the Nile). In the Predynastic Period (5000-2950 BCE) was a period of unification leading to Egypt falling under one ruler. Federations developed and conquered small, weaker communities leading to chiefdoms (city-states) in the Nile Valley. Remnants of the Predynastic Period are pottery, reliefs carved in stone, figurines etc. Other significant time periods include:1. Early Dyanastic Period (2950-2575 BCE)2. Old Kingdom (2575-2150 BCE)3. Middle Kingdom (1975-1640 BCE)4. New Kingdom (1539-1075 BCE)5. Third Intermediate Period (1075-715 BCE)6. Late Period (715-332 BCE)53-1 Funerary Mask of King Tutankhamun:- Time Period : 1332-1322 BCE- Place : Valley of the Kings, Egypt- Significance : King Tut was the son of Akhenatan. He restored traditional Egyptian beliefs, and changed capital back to Thebes. A gold funerary mask over Tut’s head and shoulders, which was within three coffins, innermost made of gold. Coffins were


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