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Psychology 350Unit Four Notes Process that Leads to Sexual Arousal1. A stimulus triggers activity in your hypothalamus2. The hypothalamus releases a hormone that stimulates activity in your pituitary glad3. Pituitary glad releases hormone that stimulates activity in the males testes and females ovaries4. The testes release testosterone and the ovaries release progesterone and those hormones lead to your sexual arousal5. Part of the process involves changes in blood flow.  Blood flow is increased to the males penis and the females clitoris (erectile tissues)6. There is a feedback loop such that the release of testosterone and progesterone also turns off the hypothalamus, thus turning off the sexual arousal. This means that you must be continually stimulated to maintain your arousal.  Sexual Dysfunctionso Desire Disorder- Symptoms:  No interest in sex- Psychological Explanations and Treatments: Stress The influence of stress on testosterone The effects of reducing stress- Physiological Explanations and Treatments: Low levels of hormones due to disease, aging, genetics, or drugs Testosterone replacement therapy (but problems for women)o Arousal Disorder- Symptoms: The individual desires sex but cannot achieve or maintain a sufficient level of sexual arousal Examples: Males- inability to maintain erections (ED)Females- inability to maintain sufficient lubrication or swelling of the genital area- Psychological Causes and Treatments: Anxiety (sometimes about problems with arousal) Distraction (often from worry about arousal) and the “turn off” mechanism Sympathetic (anxiety) vs. parasympathetic (sex) arousal Treatment is focused on attempts to reduce anxiety and focus attention- Physiological Causes and Treatments: The process that leads to physiological arousal (the filling of erectile tissues) Atherosclerosis and problems in the hypothalamus, spinal cord, and connecting nerve pathways Medications such as SSRI’s Treatments: medication (Viagra, Cialis, or Levitra) or a prosthetic device  Rigid penile implants Penile pumps (balloons)  Vacuum o Orgasmic Disorder- Explanations and Treatments of Orgasmic Disorders in Women: Failure to achieve orgasm  Insufficient stimulation of the clitoris Education: (1) Teach the woman about her body and stimulation. (2) The woman and her partner must learn what to do for her to achieve sufficient stimulation. - Explanations and Treatments of Orgasmic Disorders in Men: Premature ejaculation Currently no good explanation  The “start-stop” technique o Paraphilias- Abnormal means of gaining and achieving sexual arousal These are very common but they are not diagnosed as disorders unless they cause stress or disrupt an individuals to function socially or occupationally- Types of Paraphilias: Exhibitionism Individual flashes people and then runs away, getting excitement from running away Fetishism Getting sexual arousal from an object (usually a piece of female clothing for men, something with a womans scent on it) by smelling it, holding it, etc. while masturbating  Transvestic Fetishism Individual who cross dresses and has an orgasm while dressed in opposite genders clothes Frotteurism Pedophilia Sexual relationships with an underage individual (usually young children) Sexual Masochism Individual gets sexual pleasure from being hurt Sexual Sadism Individual gets sexual pleasure from hurting someone else Voyeurism Looking at naked people when not permitted “peeping tom”  Autoerotic Asphyxiation Gets pleasure/arousal when an individual strangles themselves or suffocates themselves Often times individuals accidentally hang themselves when trying to get pleasure  Adult Baby Syndrome Adults get sexual arousal from dressing like babies- Explanations and Treatments:- Psychodynamic Approach Conflicts over sexuality- Learning Approach Classical conditioning and arousal transfer (fear, exercise) Stimulus paired with arousal?- Physiological Approaches Excessively high sex drive (NO) Treatment with Depo-provera  Inhibits the release of hormones from the pituitary gland, thus reducing sexual desire Used for males with pedophiliao Gender Identity Disorder- Symptoms Persistent cross-sex identification Discomfort with actual sex- Preference vs. Imperative- Homosexuality Some individuals with this “disorder” are homosexual, some are not- Is this a disorder? Controversial Not considered a disorder often anymore- Cross-Sex identity across cultures- Explanations:- The Psychological Approach Gender identity is learned in childhood “The case of the little boy who was raised as a girl”- The Physiological Approach Gender identity is due to cross-sex hormone exposure during prenataldevelopment - Coping and Medical Treatments Hormone treatment Sex reassignment surgeryo Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia- A distinction between true eating disorders and strategic eating disorders- Issues associated with eating disorders: History Gender Age Sociocultural factors Strategic versus real disorders- Treatments:- Psychodynamic Relieve depression and improve self-concept- Learning Rewards for proper eating- Cognitive- Medicationo Sexual Dysfunctions and Disorderes Substance Related Disorderso Topic I: Overview of Drugs and Disorders- Factors that influence the effects of drugs Dose-dependent effects Tolerance and cross-tolerance Interaction effects Ex. alcohol and valium creates a stronger effect than they would individually Individual differences Drugs have different effects on different people Expectations  Withdrawal effects What an individual experiences when they stop taking the drug Individuals become grumpy, irritable, etc. when they don’t have the drug Unpleasant feeling so they take more to get rid of the symptoms- Types of Psychoactive Drugs Depressants: drugs that reduce arousal and increase pleasure Stimulants: drugs that increase arousal and increase pleasure Opiates (narcotics): drugs that decrease arousal and dull experiences Hallucinogens: drugs that alter sensory experience - Drug-Related Disorder- Types of drugs and their effects Depressants Stimulants  Narcotics (opiates) Hallucinogens- Why we take drugs Self-medication Pleasure production- Why we

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KU PSYC 350 - Lecture notes

Course: Psyc 350-
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