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Middle Ages: An Age of ReligionThe Decline of the Principate- Commodus (180-192)- More Civil Wars (192-197)- Severan Dynasty (192-235)o Military Emperorso Army pay raises Mixed copper into the silver coins o Economy, inflation Money supply increases and the prices of goods goes upo Military Anarchy Imperial Crisis (235-284)- Armies get out of control- Army is under control when a new emperor gets appointed and makes a gold donation to the armyo Civil Wars Barbarian Invasions (Franks, Goths, New Persians)- Philip the Arabo Founded the New Persians- Trajan Decius (249-251)o Religion as unifying factoro Killed in the Battle against Goths- Valerian Captured by Shapur and the Persians (260)- Queen Zenobia of Palmyrao Revolts against the Roman Empire and creates her own Empire- Soldier Emperorso Risen up to the ranks of generalso Aurelian (Restorer of the World) Wall of Aurelian built to protect Romeo DiocletianLate Roman Empire (284-480)- Diocletian (284-305) o Policies to help the empire survive Emperor is now your Lord and Master- Almost a God Removes all power from the Senateo Four Emperors Too many problems to be governed by one emperoro Laws Created to ensure that the Empire continues to exist Laws aren’t really followed because there isn’t a system to enforce them.o Taxes “in kind” Pay taxes in what you produced- Example a miner pays their taxes in irono Compulsory Services Soldiers, share croppers- Example if you were a soldier, you had to stay a soldier- Did not work outo Great Persecution (303-311) Sacrifice or die Aimed at Christians Not really enforced because Christianity had already penetrated the world- Constantine (306-337)o More policies to help the empire survive Solidus= gold standard- Collect taxes in gold instead of “in kind”- Only the rich had access to it- 3 Solidus a year was a good wageo Constantinople (=Byzantium) Second capital along with Rome Didn’t really unify the Empire Resulted in a Western and Eastern Empire Builds the Basilica of Constantineo Christianity  Constantine became emperor by winning a series of civil wars Constantine won the Battle of Milvian Bridge with the help of God- Chi-rho-sign (Christogram) Becomes the favored religion- Sunday becomes market day- Churches start being builtThe Christian Empire- Constantine (306-337)- Julian “The Apostate” (361-363)o Last Pagan Emperoro Relative of Constantineo Was killed by a Christian SoldierFall of the Roman Empire- Valentinian I (364-375)o Last Golden Age of the Roman Empireo Split of Empire Empire is too large to be governed by 1 person Standard pattern to be divided into Western and Eastern Empire- Triumph of Christianityo Theodosius “The Great” (379-395) Christianity as only legal religion (392)o Christian Persecutions of Pagans Baptism of pagan artwork Hypatia of Alexandria (415)- In charge of school of Philosophy in Alexandria- She was killed- Problems leading to fall of Western Roman Empire (God was punishing Romans for their sins)o Withdrawal of Senators Want to live their own lives and establish kingdoms in other provinceso Barbarization of the Army Not enough soldiers so barbarians were recruited into the army They cannot be relied on to defend the empireo Economic Ruin Money system of Rome had collapsed due to inflation caused by paying the armyo Split of Empire Empire is divided into Western and Eastern Eastern side was more developed, populated, and wealthy Western half loses the resources of the Eastern sideo Barbarian Invasions Roman Empire was invaded by savage Barbarians and the Dark Ages startedThe Rise of Barbarian Europe- Huns, Visigoths, Battle of Adrianople (378)o Visigoths were attacked by a Mongolian people known as the Huns Visigoths suggested that they would farm in deserted land in the Roman army as well as serve in the army.o Battle of Adrianople Big showdown between the Visigoths and Romans- Eastern Roman Empire is basically destroyed- One of the worst defeats the Roman Empire serves- Barbarians Invasionso Crossing of the Rhine (406): Sack of Rome (410) Sack was done by the Visigoths Response of Pagans- Reason why Barbarians are taking over is because they are being punished by Pagan Gods- St. Augustineo City of God Earthly city at Rome and Heavenly city at Jerusalem Humans should be focused on the city of God- Invasion of Atilla and the Huns (454)o Romans made an alliance with the Franks, Visigoths, and the Redundians so that they could defeat the Huns who were expanding into the Western Roman Empireo Last Gasp of the Western Roman Empire- Western Roman Empireo Occupied by Barbarianso Romulus Augustulus Last Western Roman Emperor (476) A barbarian leader retires Romulus which ends the Western Roman Empireo Julius Nepos Last Western emperor (in exile)(480)o Dismemberment of the Western Roman Empire Visigoths (SW Gaul and Spain) Franks (North Central Gaul) Angles and Saxons (England) Vandals (North Africa) Ostrogoths (Italy)The Byzantine Empire and Islam- Justinian (527-565) and Theodorao Eastern Roman Emperor during the Plagueo Reconquest of the West Thought it was rightfully the land of the Roman Empire Thought it was his duty to convert Barbarians into Christianity There was still Christian people living under Barbarianso Belisarius General sent to North Africao North Africa (Vandals) 533-548 Nasty against orthodox Christianso King Totila Gothic king who re-conquered all the territory that the Byzantines goto Italy (Ostrogoths): 535-554o Narseso Spain (Visigoths): 552o Lombards  Moved westward  Crossed into Penonia (Italy) after they defeated the Huns Conquer Italy in 568- Constantinople paid them to fight off the Hunso King Alboin Succeeded in defeating the Getnidso Pavia becomes Lombard capital (572)o Slavs (580s) Start large scale settlements in the Balkanso Byzantines drop the Roman Empire into bankruptcy.- Justinian as Lawgiver: “One state one law, one church”o Code of Justinian (533) Laws of Roman Empire were organizedo Tribonian Compiling history since Hadriano Second Council of Constantinople (533)o Nestorianismo Caesaropapism Caesar=Pope- Head of the state is the head of the church Civic leader but involved in church policyHeraclius (610-641)Rule of Byzantium Empire when New Persian Empire Formed- New Persian Empire- Chosroes II- Syria and

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UIUC HIST 141 - Middle Ages: An Age of Religion

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