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Iron Age A New Age of Empires Assyrian Empire 850 612BC Nineveh was the capital March State o Developed very good army because they were susceptible to be attacked from all sides o Put up victory monuments all over the Assyrian Empire o Whole population was in the army Babylon 745 BC Israel 721 BC Egypt 671 BC A terrorist State people o They wanted to build an empire so that they can get the loot from it o Marched the army around the Empire every year and rip off the o Wanted to create an Empire as a mission from God o Deportation Ten Lost Tribes of Israel Deported people who revolted halfway across the Assyrian Empire o The Assyrians tortured its captives Chaldeans and Medes o Revolted against the Assyrians in 612 BC o Destruction of Nineveh 612BC Empire was gone The Mini Empires Chaldeans form the New Babylonian Empire 620 539BC o Captured and Destroyed the City of Jerusalem Deported a large number of Jews Became known as the Babylonian Captivity Medes Egypt Lydia o Kingdom of the Medes 650 550BC o Kingdom of Egypt 685 547BC o Got involved in trade and commerce o Coinage 650BC o Western Part of Turkey Asia Minor The Persians Iranian Plateau Most Successful Ancient Empire yet because they taxed people when they taxed them o Aryans after 2000BC o Scythians Medes Persians Persepolis city of Persia Capital o King Cyrus 559 530BC Conquered Lydia 547BC Conquered Babylon 539BC King Cyrus let the Jews go back to Jerusalem He got killed and his son took over o Cambyses 530 523BC Egypt 525 BC Made himself into a pharaoh to respect the culture of the Egyptians o Darius 525 486BC Satrapies Satraps Unification Coinage Satrapies were large territories there were 24 of them in the Persian Empire Satraps were the governors that administered the satrapies There was one coinage system o Gold coin is known as a Daric while the Silver The Eyes and Ears of the King Coin is know as a Siglos A system of spies who would be sent out to keep the Satraps in line The Immortals Dualism A body of 10 000 elite Persian troops who always kept guard of the king Took up to 2 years to raise the Persian Army The Universe is in constant conflict between the forces of good and evil o Ahura Mazda Good Ahriman Evil o Zoroaster Zoroastrianism Established the beliefs of the Persian Religion It is your individual responsibility to choose whether you are going to be good or evil Expanded the Empire into India Attacked the Scythians in 513BC Didn t defeat them but scared them off He conquered the Thrace during this conflict Thrace First time that one of the Near Eastern Empires expanded into Europe The Persians came in contact in the Greeks The Persians in General Created big rock carvings known as Behistun Inscription The Empire as a whole is loosely organized Greece Dorian Invasion 1100BC o Known as the Greek Dark Ages 1100 776BC Lost a lot of their artwork trade networks ability to write etc Plunged into a more simple cultural level Agriculture Villages Three Developments during the Greek Dark Ages Population Expansion o Cites Polis City state Sparta Athens Corinth Monarchy o Aristocracy rule by the best Monopolized all of the offices in the government Stasis Competition o Inability to get along with each other o Very Homosexual o Everything was a competition o A man s world Women s Role o Their place was in the home o A lot of spouse abuse in the Greek society o First Wave of Greek Colonization Archaic Age 776 500BC Ionia o Things start to happen fast o Population Expansion Food Shortage Shortage results trade o Trade Cultural Assimilation If you can t trade you start to colonize If you can t colonize you go to war Orientalizing The appearance of Eastern influence in Greek art Resulted in eastern influence when Greek Traders bring back the trade goods Alphabet Adopted alphabet from the Phoenician alphabet Coins Adopted coinage on a really large scale Coinage could be used for propaganda or advertising purposes o Second Wave of Greek Colonization 750 500BC Black Sea Great Greece Sicily Southern Italy Spread of Greek culture all over the Mediterranean world o Warfare Strife and conflict over land Initially only aristocrats did the fighting Some cities allow non aristocrats into the army Gives rise to hoplites phalanx military training o Hoplites were people who could pay for their own weapons and fought in the army o Soldiers did not fight from chariots o Phalanx is a military formation in which the hoplites would line up so that the shield of the guy next to you would protect your right side o Training in the gymnasiums for the army o Evolution of the Greek government To compete other cities must let non aristocrats into the army This lets wealthy non aristocrats demand greater rights In some cities a new form of government arises Aristocracy Oligarchy rule by the few o Need to meet a minimum wealth requirement to be a part of oligarchy When the aristocrats resist Tyrants illegal rulers arise Eventually nearly all Greek cities adopt oligarchy Greek Culture o If the Greeks were disunified politically the were unified culturally o Hellenes and Barbarians Greek language o Gods and Mythology Zeus with a thunderbolt and eagle Amazons Famous female warriors Demigod Hercules o A Tale of Two Cities Athens Sparta Similarities o Large Territories and populations Differences o Athens o Sparta Mycenaean Sea Trade Rich Navy Walls Liberal Democracy Dorian Land Agricultural Poor Army No Walls Conservative Monarchy Sparta Economy of Sparta remained agricultural o They were conservative Dual Monarchy Senate Citizens o Warrior Assembly Did not have power except vote on the proposals presented by the king and the council Lycurgus 700BC o Good Rule Create a completely military society Upbringing of Spartan soldiers Spartan boys had to learn how to supply themselves When the boys turned 18 they got elected into the army unit unanimously They would live in the army barracks until they were 60 years old Allowed to be married when they were 30 years o Why the need for such a militaristic system Helots were ready to revolt so the army had to be prepared o Helots Slaves that farmed the land Constantly ready to revolt Left overs of the Dorian Invasion Athens Liberal and Trade They had an Aristocracy and council with aristocratic only members o Laws would be introduced The citizens were members of assembly o Vote yes or no on measures that were introduced Evolved into an oligarchy o Solon in 592BC was given the authority to rewrite the

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UIUC HIST 141 - Iron Age: A New Age of Empires

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