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Comm 309 Review for Exam 3 What is Prosocial media o The use of the media to encourage or enable children to interact with each other in o Positive interactions friendly play inclusiveness aggression reductions altruism and friendly inclusive ways stereotype reduction How do altruistic and violent content differ on children s shows o Children are more likely to encounter depictions of altruism in three out of four programs than of physical aggression in two out of three programs o But the concentration of altruistic behaviors is lower three incidents an hour than that o In children s programming altruism occurs about four times an hour violence occurs 14 of violence six incidents an hour times an hour o Children who watches an average of 3 hour a day of children television programming will see 4 380 acts of altruism and 15 330 acts of violence each year What factors in Social Learning Theory increase altruistic behavior o child identifies with character character is of similar age etc What are the effects of a media portrayal in which prosocial behavior follows aggression o Research suggest that having prosocial behavior follow aggression might actually o Meta analysis suggest that combining initial antisocial content with prosocial outcome might be particularly problematic o Ex Power Rangers even if ending result is something positive violence pulls more backfire weight What are the effects of Educational programming o One large scale 10 year longitudinal study preschool to high school found that children who watch educational television in the early year perform better some 10 years later o Effective Educational Programming Program is attention holding Used by Sesame Street Repetition Encourage audience participation Characters speak to child and ask for their response Use narrative format telling a story is best Education material is CENTRAL to the storyline Do programs like Baby Einstein have an effect on those under 2 years of age o not effective o no real evidence that any type of media has a beneficial effect for children under 2 o Infants and toddlers learn better from real life experiences than from video o Media learning starts around age 3 o There exists a video deficit effect for learning by infants and toddlers o Researchers have yet to show any learning for commercial baby videos What are the effects of TV on Politics o Political advertising different types of ads to a national audience o Decline of political parties Campaigns more CANDIDATE centered then PARTY centered o Need to have a national presence o Apathy campaigns more negative partisanship seen What historically have been the various stages of the press in reporting on the President o 1941 66 Lap Dog Journalism You did not criticize the president of the United States o 1966 74 Watch dog journalism Report only on issue that influence performance Not going to talk about the presidents wrong doing it must be significant and a constitutional issue o 1974 Junkyard Journalism Political reporting that is often harsh aggressive and intrusive This makes running for office very difficult What are the effects of negative political ads o Negativity bias Negative information is more memorable than positive o Negative ads are more complex than positive ones leads to more attention o Seem to be retained in memory more than positive ads o Sleeper effect you don t remember where the information came from disassociate it from the source What are the effects of Presidential Debates o Most debates have had little influence on outcome o 1960 to 2000 exceptions o In close elections Debates could be decisive What are the major results of the use of new technology from the last 2 Presidential elections o World has changed things have moved online and tradition has changed tremendously o Mobile devices are coming into vote o Facebook social media getting into what friends and other people are doing in politics What are some of the findings regarding how rapidly new technology has changed in the last decade o Internet adoption is up to 85 o Changes in smartphone ownership up to 65 but moved very rapidly o Almost two thirds of cell owners go online line using their cell phones also moved rapidly o Mobile Phones are more important than sex I d give up sex before I d give up my phone We are hooked o Tablet ownership up to 34 only 4 years ago it was 3 o Social Networking site up to 89 2005 was 9 o Google boss Entire world will be online by 2020 In what ways is new technology different from old media o The internet is less of a Mass medium than it is a conduit for mass and other forms of communication o What are some of the differences from Old media 1 Interactivity 2 way and more audience activity 2 Diversity of Content and Viewpoints 3 Audience Selectivity and Control 4 The audience can now be the gatekeeper We comment about it go on twitter Facebook and express how we feel and what is going on 5 Personalization of the Media Experience 6 Gone from broadcasting to narrowcasting special appeal programming We have choice what we would prefer to see 7 Media Convergence Line between mass and interpersonal is being blurred Cyberbullying Sexting is it interpersonal or mass media fine line How does new technology change the theories we discussed in class o we have to adjust o Agenda setting Who are the gatekeepers blogs etc New media may not only tell people What to think about but how and when to act on those issues Occupy Wall Street the Mideast o Cultivation Perhaps our world view is specialized through our own choosing WE can select and even create content that IS our world view What are some of the roles of Social Networking Sites in substance abuse o serves as a super peer o Teens typical day of social networking sites 70 o teen substance use by time spent on social networking percentage is up seen pictures of alcohol and weed on social networking sites higher percentage o 12 of teens that have seen drugs on social networking likely to try drugs in future Vs 5 not seen Theoretically how might the Internet have different effects than other media sources o traditional media violence and other forms of Internet exposure hate groups and terrorism sites o cyberbullying o sexual exploitation pedophiles using online chat groups to solicit young children o online food marketing advergames o accidental porn younger children accidentally come across it What is cyberbullying and what are some of the effects on victims o an umbrella term related

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UA COMM 309 - Review for Exam 3

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