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Comm 309 Exam 1 Review Why Communicate it can satisfy human needs four functions of comm 1 information 2 entertainment 3 instruction 4 persuasion o functions are often mixed o all can occur in same communication Comm can occur at many levels o intrapersonal o interpersonal o small group o organizational o public o mass how we get info has changed over time we watch the same material but it is being viewed differently Society s Influence on Media mass media do not exist in a vacuum society s regulate certain things in media cultural and political context shapes its nature and function mass media systems differ greatly from society to society major restrictions are for children Debate Over the Media s Influence industry no negative effects only positive effects entertainment critics harmful negative effects especially on children and adolescents researchers some people some time under certain situations o these three groups battle with their conclusions Ways to Study Media content exposure effects o effects we can measure behavioral attitudinal o effect can be cognitive thoughts and beliefs physiological heart rate blood pressure brain activity direct effects model all members react the same processes it in the same manner and has same behavior conditional effects model effects some of the people some of the time under some conditions general model that is used now cumulative effects model don t think about effects as one particular viewing its cumulative viewing over time third person effect I can view this material but others might not be able to underestimating the effect on oneself Dimensions of Media Effects Micro individual and Macro societal Level intended advertising or unintended byproducts effects Content dependent violence aggression and content irrelevant nothing to do with content ex media and obesity short immediately after and long term 20 or 30 years effects reinforcement happens to most easier to reinforce someone s attitudes and change harder to change a person s attitude Major Research Methods Survey know margin of error Content Analysis Correlational Study does not determine causality Experiment can determine causality random assignment Triangulation 3 methods are used to determine a cause if I want to feel comfortable about media violence or whatever I look for different types of methods and hope they are all pointing in same direction a means of systematically integrating the findings from many empirical studies Meta Analysis used to provide the big picture magnitude of effect direction of effect Theories that Explain Media Effects Social Cognitive Theory learn how to behave by observing others media learn scripts about behavior stored in memory Priming Effects short term effects see something it primes you to think about it Excitation Transfer if I am aroused I will transfer this arousal to another situation but you label it as one thing event Cultivation heavy viewers of media tend to take on a perception of the world that the media portrays Uses and Gratifications we choose certain types of media because it satisfies certain needs we have Agenda Setting media sets what we think and talk about traditional gatekeepers don t exist today Children and Teens and the Media Generation M minority groups use the media slightly more use more mobile technology Infants and Media under 2 no understanding of what is in front of them in terms of media AAP says that children under 2 should NOT watch TV they need positive nurturing time with adults and other children no evidence of positive benefits of TV for this age group Are Children and Adolescents Different in How they are Affected by the Media developmental changes affect the processing of media o changes occur gradually not abruptly are 8 12 adolescents are 13 18 younger children view media differently o pay attention to perceptual features not plot o difficulty with fantasy and reality distinctions o less capable of linking scenes together Media Violence Content and Effects Is there violence in the media yes o ages can differ when these changes occur younger children are ages 2 7 older children What content is of concern most material doesn t show pain or harm not realistic most violent characters are attractive What does research say for some children it has an effect under certain conditions What theories account for effects modeling and priming as major ones Why are the effects denied small effect sizes only causal High Risk Portrayals attractive perpetrator violence that is justified violence that goes unpunished violence that shows no pain or harm violence that seems realistic to viewer o What are the effects aggression fear the more I watch the more fearful I come that this is a scary world desensitization less emotionally bothered Perception of Realism and Identification with Aggressor Huesmann Longitudinal Studies the best predictor of aggressive predictor from age 6 10 and its effects 15 years later how much violence they watched how much they thought the violence was real and how much they identified with the aggressor Video Game Mechanisms that differ from other violent media identification with the aggressor active participation repetitive actions reinforcement for aggressive actions o Effects effects are there four key questions about violent video games 1 is the research evidence consistent yes 2 is there causal evidence yes 3 is there evidence of effects on seriously aggressive behavior no 4 is there good theory yes Sexual Content and Effects what type of sexual portrayals exist lots of talk about sex occurs on TV more than behaviors Concerns rarely are consequences or risks shown Contraception on TV doesn t occur Are there effects from embedded and non explicit portrayals those who tend to watch a lot of sexual material greater likelihood they will engage in sexual behavior earlier Prosocial Effects ER and Friends some shows have positive effects Obscenity and Pornography obscenity not protected by 1st Amendment Porn is not obscene 3 commission 2 Surgeon General s Report 3 Attorney General s Report Research Types o probably no antisocial effects Violent Pornography X Rated obscene goes beyond contemporary community standards community finds it offensive has no artistic value 1 Presidential Report of the Commission on Obscenity and Pornography Erotica R or X Rated material with implied or actual sexual contact but no violence or coercion Sexualized Violence Against Women R rated videos that are less

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UA COMM 309 - Exam 1 Review

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