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Exam 3 History 2057 Tuesday October 15 Modern Times starring Charlie Chaplin NOTE Students may use Modern Times as a primary source on the third midterm Lecture 13 The Roaring Twenties Prosperity Politics and Race 1919 1929 There was reason for optimism at this time but after 1929 there was struggle in the American economy Europe at this time was going through a very low period in their economics I Prosperity Decade A Standard of Living 1 This was growing in the 1920s 2 Average incomes were growing by 1 3 3 We were working less making more 4 This was due to the factory increase in production It was taking less time to make more at cheaper prices 5 Families were moving out of the cities into the suburbs Black families were moving into the city into apartments communities 6 People were buying land not only for homes but with plans to sell in the future real estate become big business in the 1920s 7 Average income was raised factories were growing in efficiency 8 Less work hours more money 9 Purchasing on credit 10 Shift into want rather than need There was a non self fulfilling B Modern Corporations couple of large firms 1 Companies were forming oligopoly Industry dominated by a 2 General electric motors Sears 3 These were even bigger than steel oil 4 Rise of managers began during this time also Separation of ownership management 5 Stocks became something that people would be able to buy You didn t have to work at the company to be an owner 6 RCA Radio Corporation of America 7 Managers brought in a new ideals a Expanded industrial research b Diversified products c Integrated production distribution 8 This allowed the stock prices to rise this may have happened too quickly creating a bubble 9 Ford was producing one car every 10 seconds Efficiency was the a New plant River Rouge Plant Worlds largest integration b Everything they needed was brought into one facility to be name of the game factory made shipped 10 Palmer Raids Exam 3 History 2057 a 1919 1920 Espionage Sedition Acts were used to go after radicals communist socialists etc b These people were not given free trials Rounded up c ACLU American Civil Liberties Union was formed d Their job was to defend all people in the name of the deported constitution e Supreme Court ruled this constitutional C Welfare Capitalism 1 Used to make workers think that they didn t need labor unions Wanted to make work more enjoyable 2 By 1925 Ford was the first company to cut down to a 5 day week 3 Open shop method this meant unions had less influence 4 Closed shop employer required that every employee joined the 1st 2 day weekend money members union 5 With the increase of cars there was more need for gas stations highways repair shops etc 6 People now could commute to work which allowed living in suburbs 7 There was now an increase in homeownership D Skyscrapers Suburbs 1 This was one of the most expanded areas during this time 2 Empire state building was completed in 1931 Tallest building in the world until 1970 E Mass Consumption 1 People were making more spending more money 2 More time for leisure 3 Weekend excursions 4 Buying radios phonographs 5 This was encouraged by corporations Advertising firms were 6 There were now new ways to purchase credit mortgages etc increasing F Middletown 1 Survey by sociologists about Muncy Indiana 2 What kind of consumptions were people making 3 Especially cars 4 Voices document 5 Families main concern was not peoples main concern 6 People who had more money thought that people who can t afford 7 Andre Siegfried nice things shouldn t buy them things stood out about Americans at this time Americans were focused on standard of living 4 a Natural products that were allowing production to happen b Standardization is taking away individualism c Standard of living is what s sacred to Americans at the time d Efficiency was valued over political liberty G Urban Sprawl Exam 3 History 2057 II Republican Era was the end of the progressive era A Mitchell Palmer 1 Wilsons attorney general 2 Released Eugene Debbs imprisoned at the time for violation of 3 Created an alien bureau 4 Jay Edgar Hoover was the general head of the general intelligence espionage etc agency FBI 5 Palmer was worried that people were going to overthrow the government 6 The Red Scare Fear of the rise of communism 7 Hoover began making surveillance of people thought to be against the government Rounded up and deported no hearing or trial a Most of these people were members of the socialist party b Arrested 6000 people at the time c Violated civil liberties B ACLU 1 Formed by progressives in opposition to the Palmer Raids 2 American Civil Liberties Union 3 Purpose was to defend those liberties to ALL American citizens 4 Voices document 5 Opposed the Sedition Act 6 Difficult time Espionage was deemed constitutional a Free speech was fine as long as it was not in contempt to the government b Clear and present danger clause C Warren G Harding 1 1st Republican president that was pro business 2 Elected in 1920 Easily won 3 Returning to normalcy wanted to move away from progressive era policies 4 Wanted to trust business and not government regulation 5 Business did prosper during this ruling 6 Involved in scandals a Multiple affairs b Appointed a new chief justice Taft repudiated Muller vs c Many of his friends were brought into the cabinet that would Oregon accept bribes D Teapot Dome 1 Secretary of the interior Albert Fall 2 Gave military reserves to people at low rates in exchange for 100s of 1000 of dollars 3 First cabinet officer to go to jail at the time 4 Teapot Dome Wyoming 5 First cabinet member to be arrested E Andrew Mellon 1 Secretary of the treasury 2 Wealthy banker Carnage Mellon Exam 3 History 2057 3 Popular with the Republican The Republican secretary of the 4 Believed that Gov should be run like a corporation 5 Federal budget he thought was too high along with taxes Holding treasury back the economy 6 Prosperity did go up along with a decrease in the national debt 7 Corporate wealth doubled during this time also 8 This eventually made the depression worse F Calvin Coolidge Pro business small government 1 President in 1923 when Harding died 2 Cut more taxes and government 3 Silent Cal 4 Millionaires Club 5 Very supportive of business those who build a factory build a temple G Charles Dawes 1 Tariffs were going up at this time 2 Called the Big Four together 3 Dawes Plan a Lower Germanys annual payment b American investment banks would lend


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LSU HIST 2057 - Exam 3

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