LSU HIST 2057 - Segregation & Civil Rights during WWII

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Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma (1944)Swedish economist: wrote a bookConflict between prejudice of blacks and American creed (liberty, quality, justice)Army is promoting : facism vs. democracyBut still segregatedIf America is going to fight for democracy overseas, must practice it at home.American Women in WWIIWomen entered the workforceBecame social accepted celebratedWomen can be seen as a symbol for why were fighting the warMany americans think women should return to their home after the war.1. Women in Military: joined in largest numbers during WWIIFirst time they’re recruitedNot for combat, but for support roles(WAACS) Womens Auxilry Army CorpWomen Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Services (WAVES)Women should join the war, but only temporary- “emergency”75% of women didn’t leave the USlarge majority returned to their homes/ only civilian workforceOffice of War Information: persuaded women to join the warRosie the Riveter“rivet:” drill to fasten together different parts of a machine2. Women in the Workforcewomen are working as machinist, crane operators, car plants40% of the aircraft industryforced labor unions to change their demandsmaternity leave, equal pay for equal work, childcare50% more women working during the war.Many are married – this becomes majority acceptedChallenges: getting paid lower wages, take on job plus home roles, war production 24 hrs a day, childcare wasn’t provided- higher absentee rates to care for childrenMarriage & Family (Juvenile Delinquency)More people getting married: have more money, women marry before men deportMen leave behind pregnant wives, making women’s challenges worseGender expectation: women shouldn’t expect their husbands to be faithfulDivorce rate: almost doubled during the war(slide 13 11D) Barbara married CharlieSchools: shortage during the war- often combined 2 togetherMothers in factories working, fathers in the armyLots of kids dropped out of schoolMany writers blamed mothers for workingMexican-Americans in WWIIZoot Suit Riots (1943)Many Mexican teenagers were attacked by the navyThought of as “thugs” ‘gangs”Newspapers often exaggerated the riots, blaming the MexicansCouncil Coordinated of Latin American Youths (CCLAY)Civil rights group: trying to remove the attacks“Good Neighbor” Policy: being nice to the other neighboring countriesLeague of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)Found examples of Meixcan-American soldiers, who were denied admittance into segregated areasMexican Americans were American citizens : English onlyTried to embrace Mexican heritage to children- teaching Spanish in school.Bracero Program (1942-1964)Partnership between the US and Mexico: sending over 4.5 million Mexicans as field workers in agricultureBrazo; army / cero: field workerNot citizens of the USLasted for 22 years, long after the war endedSuppose to receive decent houses/wages: but had no rights to unions etc.300,000 mexicans-americans fought in the navy during the war (citizens)worked in factoriesemerged in the workforce, example as part of the war effortMexicans benefited from Japanese-InternmentCould buy a lot of their goods cheap, since they had to be sold quicklyMendez v. Westminster (1946)rented a farm in orange countryMendez: were in Westminister school district, wouldn’t let their kids attendTook it to court: won a segregation caseGuy GabaldonMexican man, moved in with his Japanese neighborsLearned their languages, etc.Joined the internment camps when the Japanese family was takenJoined the Marines- told Japanese soliders what americans were doingThey gave themselves up, cause he told me to.Was awarded a civil star: spoke Japanese to then soldiers.Captured so manyJapanese-Americans in WWIIRoosevelt signed an order: Japanese were forced to go to War Relocation Camps110,000 were sent to these camps. 2/3 second generation (70,000 citizens)e-say born in japan, first generation immigrantsnot as many Germans and Italians were mistreated and sent awayIssei vs. Nisei (JACL) Japanese American Citizen LeagueIssei: wanted to preserve their heritage- had schoolsNiesi: forced the JACL- only for the 2nd gen, wanted to preserve their citizenshipDid not approve internmentEarl Warren & “Fifth Column” InvasionFBI gathered suspicious activity for Japan citizens, before Pearl HarborUS was having disputes over oil with Japan before the bombingMany leaders were arrested on Dec 7. Thought they were spies“Fifth Column” – citizens that try to undermine the country from withinthought they were trying to help JapanEarl Warren: governor of California, during the war.1942 campaign platform- remove the Japanese from Californiaregretted his support for internment during the war.Advocated for segregation later in his careerWar Relocation Authority (WRA)War general “Well a Japs a Jap.”There is no way to determine Japan’s loyalty.Oversee the forced removal on the East CoastFeared an invasionBuilt 10 camps in remote/secluded areas away from the coast (10-12,000)Fall of 1942- shipped the families to the campsEntire family was given 1 room, cots, 1 lightbulbAll people share bathrooms, 1 cafeteriaNo chairsWanted to give the control of their lifestyle to the Japanese peopleEncouraged them to create police force, schools, etc.The Japanese: viewed this as a sacrifice of their war effortsIssei: very vocal on their disapproval, protested, lawsuitsManzenar Riot: at the camps, army sent a survey to the Japanese.1. Would they renounce their allegiance to the emperor of Japan?2. Were they willing to serve in the US army?Issei- couldn’t renounce the only country they had citizenship to.Nessi- worried they’d be immediately drafted.Loyalty Oath vs. DissentSupreme court ruled that internment was legalUpheld Roosevelt’s executive orderKorematsu v. United States (1944)niessi citizen, tried to join the navy: failed physical- accused his rejection from prejudicewent into hidingsent to an internment camp-6:3 – ruled that it was a military necessity3 that voted against-1. Frank Murphy: judge for Sweet home, governor during sit down strike,slide 35what led to the loyalty oath!- that led to the riotscongress gave $20,000 to all surviving interneesPatriotism:Used Japanese language skills to translate things sent to the USLots of japs fought in combatHawaii had the highest jap populationInternment camps allowed men to volunteer- won the purple heart award442nd Regiment (‘Go For Broke;’ Joe Nagata)Joe Nagata: never went to


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LSU HIST 2057 - Segregation & Civil Rights during WWII

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