LSU HIST 2057 - Progressives & Minorities

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Progressives & Minorities (1895-1925)I. “The New Immigrants”A. Chinese Exclusion Act, 18821. Chinese immigrants coming through Angel Island on the coast of CA2. Chinese have come and taken over American production and the Workingmen’s Party wants to exclude Chinese3. Act says that any Chinese coming into the country would be thrown in jail andsent back to China4. First time a law restricts and entire ethnicity from emigrating to America5. Lasted 10 years, then was renewed, 10 years later became permanent until repealed in 1924B. Tape v. Hurley, 18851. Mary Tape was a Chinese American women that demanded her child be allowed to go to public school2. Mary Tape won the case, but CA state legislature amended the State Education Codea. Did not allow Indian, Mongolian, and the Chinese from public education3. Mary Tape wrote a letter to newspaper editora. Question of assimilation b. Public schools = assimilation to American culturec. Still wanted her children to wear the Chinese dressC. US v. Wong Kim Ark, 18981. Supreme Court ruled 14th amendment guaranteed citizenship to children born to Chinese immigrants in American (and only those born in the US)2. Wong Kim Ark, 1898a. Born in the US, but went back to China for four yearsb. He tried to come back, but was denied because he was coming from Chinac. Argued that he was a citizen because he was born in the USd. USSC ruled that because he was born in the US, he had the ability to comeand go as he pleasedD. Japanese replace Chinese labor1. Japanese in CA worked in farming and in the cities, but most worked in agriculture2. Native born whites were concerned about them taking over the economya. Applied anti-Chinese feelings toward Japaneseb. Japan was the only country that was actually conquering land3. 1906, Tried to prevent Japanese from coming to public schoolsa. Japanese now forced to go to the same schools as Chinese and Mongolians4. Japan was upset so they went to the Japanese consulate and worked out a deal with Pres. Roosevelt5. Gentlemen’s Agreement, 1907a. San Francisco would allow Japanese children to attend public schools as long as Japan would stop granting labor passports to Japaneseb. Problem with immigration with restrictions, made exceptions1. Japanese could still go to Hawaii2. The families of Japanese workers in the US could come to US3. Did not cut down on Japanese immigration and angered whitesE. California Alien Land Law, 19131. Prevented aliens from ineligible citizenship (Chinese) from owning or leasing land2. Japanese sent representatives to CA to lobby against the law, but passed anyway3. Because of immigration, race relations are just as bad in California as they were in the SouthF. Migrant Workers (Mexicans)1. Mexican Revolution caused economic hardship in Mexico2. Many Mexican immigrants came through El Paso, TX3. Work for Mexicans was seasonal agricultural work (migrant workers)4. Mexican children were forced to begin working rather than go to school5. Mexican families felt it was more important for the their children to start working and not go to school because education doesn’t matter when you’re starvingII. African-Americans DebateA. Booker T. Washington1. Born into slavery before the Civil War2. Believed that blacks needed to make the best of Jim Crow segregation3. Founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabamaa. To train elementary school teachers and industrial workers)b. Vocational school4. Fighting for civil rights and equality was a waste of time, blacks should really focus on economic advancement5. Up from Slavery, 1901a. Speech made at the Atlanta Conventionb. Don’t leave the Southc. Start from the bottom to get to the topd. Don’t need to learn about the arts, just take what opportunities you can gete. Have to wait until they’re ready for their rights they wantf. Focus on work, not leisureg. Very good speaker and white press loved himh. First African American invited to dinner at White House with Pres.B. W.E.B Du Bois1. Grew up in the North, after segregation2. Washington’s strongest critic3. All educated blacks had a bigger responsibility4. “Talented Tenth”: The educated members of black communitya. Believes arts are important5. Washington’s beliefs would lead to:a. Negro disenfranchisementb. Legal segregationc. A steady withdrawal of funds to black colleges6. Souls of Black Folk, 1903a. Educated blacks need to use their education in the liberal arts to establish equal rightsb. Economic advancements were not enoughc. Du Bois agenda1. Right to vote2. Civic equality3. People who are able to go to college intellectually should be able


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LSU HIST 2057 - Progressives & Minorities

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