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Chapter 1/2: - Hydrogen bonding: Occurs between Hydrogen’s and highly electronegative atomso Explains why it can easily evaporate and how water can stick- Endothermic reactions absorb heat, Exothermic reactions release it Chapter 3: Proteins- Proteins are made up of amino acids (20 building blocks) o 20 amino acids in the body - Central Carbon with a carboxyl group (COO, which is the negative side) and an amino group (NH3, which has a positive charge) and an R group o Polymerization Amino acids are bonded by peptide bonds (condensation reaction)- Condensation: Losing water to form peptide bondso R-group is the most important part of the protein Determines what it can bond with, what its shape will be Unique to EVERY amino acid (20 different R groups) Differ in size, shape, reactivity (interactions with water) 3 types of R Groups:- Non-polar:o One long CH chain (only CH’s)o Hydrophobic o- Polar: o Polar molecules like OH/SHo Will contain O and So Hydrophilic o- Electrically charged: o +/- Charge o i.e. O- o Only look at R-Groups and their charges to determine electric chargeo- When Amino acids are put into water:o Ionizes (OH becomes O-)  loses an H from carboxylic groupo Adds that H to the amino group (+ charge)- Acids vs. Bases:o ACIDS: Donate H+ (has a negative charge)o BASES: Accept H+ (has a positive charge)- Proteins have 4 structures:o Primary Monomers put together (A-L-G-T  Amino acid sequence)o Secondary Alpha-helix/Beta-pleated sheets (2 different structures)  H-bonds that are forming between the R-Groups are keeping the structure together Alpha-Helix: Hydrogen bonds are keeping it twisted Beta-Helix: Folded back o Tertiary  3-D shape of alpha helixes and beta pleated sheets (combination) Due to R-Group interaction- H bonds, ionic bonds, disulfide bonds, van der waals bonds (hydrophobic bonds) aka nonpolar molecules that are working together If a protein’s bonds were destroyed, tertiary structure would be most highly affectedo Quaternary  Quaternary structure: Combination of 3-D shapes- i.e. Hemoglobin (i.e. 4 tertiary structures put together)Chapter 4: Nucleic Acids- 2 Main structures: o DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid 2 anti parallel strands (5’ to 3’ and 3’ to 5’) Sugar/Phosphate backbone is hydrophilic Nitrogenous bases are hydrophobic  Traditional double helix of DNA is secondary structure (doesn’t form other structures by themselves) Function: Carries genetic information to make proteins for cells DNA Synthesis:- Cells synthesize new DNA in order to divideo Break Hydrogen bonds between bases (separates 2 strands)o Each strand is a model- New strands are synthesizedto complement the old strandso Phosphodiester (between nucleotides in the same strand) and H bonds will form between the twoo RNA 1 structure: long line that loops (hairpin) [primary structure] RNA twists itself to form a short-lived double helix  mRNA (messenger- sends info), tRNA (transfer- translate information) and rRNA (ribosomal- makes ribosomes)- Nucleotides are building blocks of nucleic acids (similar to amino acids)- 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, N-baseo Phosphate group stays the sameo 2 different types of 5-C sugars: Ribose- DOES have an OH on the 2’C- Corresponds with RNA- Comes in different forms- Has Uracil instead of Thymine Deoxyribose - Does not have an OH on the 2’ C- Corresponds with DNA- MUST be synthesized in a 5 to 3 ordero 5 different types of N-Bases  Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil = nucleotides In RNA: A-U, C-G In DNA: A-T, C-G Purines: - Adenine and Guanine- 2 ring structure Pyrimidines:- C, T, U- 1 ring structure o Phosphodiester Bond: Bond between 2 nucleotides  Add nucleotides (how DNA is made) OH on 3’ Carbon bonds with 5’ Phosphate groupChapter 5: Carbohydrates - C,O,H- Carbonyl group (C=O)- Hydroxide group (OH)- C-H group - Examples include Glucose/Galactoseo Both have the same molecular formula but have different structures - # of Sugars:o monosaccharaides: 1 sugaro disaccharides: 2 sugarso polysaccharides: several sugars- Differentiated by # of Carbons:o Triose: 3-co Pentose: 5-co Hexose: 6-c- Differentiated by Placement of the OHo Aldose: End of molecule o Ketose: middle of molecule o Alpha-glucose: when OH is below the ringo Beta-glucose: when OH is above the ring- Polymerization: Glycosidic Bondso Lactose is a disaccharide made up of 2 glucoseso Alpha-glucose + alpha-glucose  maltoseo Beta-glucose + beta-glucose  lactoseo Starch: Storage in plants- Amylase: unbranched - Amylopectin: branched Amylase breaks it down- Needs to be broken down in order to get glucose (so it can be used for cellular respiration)o Glycogen:  Storage in animals Phosphorylase breaks it downo Cellulose: Structural polysaccharide for plants (cell walls in plants) Alternative Flipping of Glucose:- Stronger molecule, matching parts that wouldn’t normally be matched o Chitin:  Structural in fungi and insects  Alternative flippingo Peptidoglycan: Structural in Bacteria Protein attached to the sugar makes it stronger- Functions of Carbs:o Building blockso Structural o Cellular identity: Signaling i.e. Peptidoglycan: Can be used for support AND to signal cell tocell reception  i.e. Blood Type: Specific glycoproteins determine blood typeso Providing/Storing energy (most common form) Glucose being turned into pyruvate and then being used duringcitric acid cycle Chapter 6: Lipids/Membranes- Hydrocarbonso Associated with fats - Fatty Acid: Building blocks for lipids - Defined by solubilityo Saturated: Every Carbon has a single bond (can’t add more H into the molecules) Low permeabilityo Unsaturated: Will have a double bonded C somewhere in the chain (CAN add more H to the molecules) i.e. olive oil Higher permeability - Plasma Membrane: Acts as a barriero Regulates the passage of materials (selectively permeable)o Amphipathic: Polar/nonpolar parts to the bondso Polar heads can interact with water not in cell BUT the other part of the molecule doesn’t have to (that’s how it’s permeable)o AKA lipid bilayeroo Small molecules (non-polar/gases) can pass througho Large molecules (polar/ions) cannot pass through- Osmosis: Passage of water through a membraneo Isotonic: Equal movement into/out of the cell o Hypertonic:  Hypertonic solution: A lot of solute in the OUTSIDE of the cell- Highly concentrated solute on

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BU BIOL 118 - Notes

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