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COMM250Thinking about Communication: Definitions, Models, and Ethics- Communication (class definition) – process in which individuals use symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environmento We believe it is a social process- involves people and interactions- Issues in Defining Communication:o Is it meant to be intentional? Sender must intent to send message in order to communication to take placeo Does it have correspondence? Does message sent have to equal the message received o Be successful? In order for communication to take place we have to achieve goalso Be ethical? Honest? Should communication scholars study things that aren’t ethical/honest?o Include symbolic actions? Communication requires symbolso Include cognition, thought, perception? Are these things that should be studied in communication or should we leave it to psychology, sociology o Be human to human?  Can we communicate w/ animals?  Comm only studies human-human - Models of communication:o A. Linear (Shannon & Weaver, 1949 ) Early view of communication process “one way” model (1) Sender – person who has meaning that they want to get cross- Encodes the message  taking pure ideas, thoughts and feelings in mind of sender & labeling them w/ symbols, organizing them in same way  (2) Channel – outlet for how we send and receive messages - Send and receive messages through our 5 senses  (channels) ex: non-verbal, hear, touch, smell, taste (3) Receiver – person who receives the message- Decodes the message  process, interpret meaning of those symbols  Noise- anything that interferes w/ the sending & receiving of messages - 1. Physical (external noise): any noise that is external to the participantso Ex: construction, visual distractions…etc- 2. Semantic noise: noise that is based on word meaningo Ex: if someone is using a word you don't understand, foreign languages, technical terms- 3. Psychological noise: noise is internal, in the mind of the sender/receiver o Ex: personal bias/opinion that affects behavior/what you think internally = hinders communication to happen - 4. Physiological noise: noise in the body (internally)o Ex: tired, sick, hungry, hearing disorder…hinders message from being sent/received-o B. Interactional (Schramm, 1954) “circular”/ “interactive”  (1) Feedback  response from receiver, response to message- It lets sender know the meaning that the receiver got from message- Very start-stop oriented- Ex: texts, emails  (2) Field of experience  everything that you bring to the communication experience- Ex: age, ethnicity, culture…etc. - Affects the meaning we intend to send/receive- Needs to overlap in some field of experience in order for understanding to take place -o C. Transactional (Bamlund, 1970)  On-going process, doesn't involve 3rd party  Simultaneously sending and receiving- Both parties are responsible for the creation of meaning- A response to an action  reaction/response  reaction/receiver- Multiple feedback to reach common understanding  Takes place in a context/environment- Changes rules for communication- Doesn't change the process Interpersonal process : prominent during the time this theory was created-- Contexts of Communication: Intrapersonal Interpersonal Small groupsRole of cognition Relationship development Problem solvingDecision making Relationship maintenance LeadershipAttributions about others Relationship dissolution Communication networksAttributions about self Power and control PowerPersuasion Attraction Norms Organization Comm. Public/rhetorical Intercultural HealthCulture Aristotle (ethos, lagos, pathos) Between and among cultures InterpersonalPower Speech and text criticism Co-cultures Public healthMorale Communication apprehension How culture affects comm. Risk messagesWorker satisfaction Gender DiffusionHierarchy Networks Productivity Chapter 2: Defining Theory- Theory (Stephen Littlejohn) – any conceptual representation or explanation of a phenomenono Label for things - Theory (Mary John Smith) – a set of statements specifying an explanatory relationship b/w two or more classes of phenomenon o A theory must include explanation (a relationship b/w concepts) - Theory vs Taxonomy and Modelo Taxonomy – conceptual representation of categories of a phenomenono Example: Marwell &Schmitt’s Came up with 16 different strategies Compliance gaining strategies (organized them into groups) Stephen Littlejohn would consider taxonomy a theory because it is a conceptual representationo Model – a simplified representation of reality Specifies relationships b/w concepts Temporal order Stephen Littlejohn AND Mary John Smith would think a model is a theory b/c obviously it is a conceptual representation but it also explains/specifies relationships - Theory (Class definition) – any conceptual representation or explanation of a phenomenon - Goals of theory:o To describe (to understand) What?  answer this question Put it in an “intelligible frame”o To explain How/Why?o To predicto To control Social change To control communication process - Communication theory – a way to describe, explain, predict, and/or control human communication behavior Meta-theoretical Assumptions- We have so many different communication theories - They all have to do with the different assumptions that scholars in our field make:o Nature of communication – so many ways to define ito Varied ways of building and testing theory- Metatheory is a branch of philosophy o Theory about theoryo Metatheory- body of speculation on the nature of theory and research What are the assumptions that scholars make and how does this affect the theories o Metatheoretical discussion answer these 3 questions: What communication phenomena should be observed? (What counts as communication?) How should it be observed? (What is the best way to learn about communication?—surveys, interviews…etc) What should be the goals of theory/research? (to explain, to describe, to predict, to control…is one or the other better?)- Three areas of metatheoretical assumptions :o Ontological Branch of philosophy concerned with studying the nature of reality  Theories represent reality but it isn’t reality in it of itself These questions attempt to define what reality is - How do we know what we witness is communication? How do we


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