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Exam #1 Study GuideDefining Communication- There are many different questions that are raised when trying to define communication.o Is it intentional?o Does it have to have correspondence? Correspondence: the meaning of a message, does the message sent have to equal the message received? o Does it have to be successful? The successful issue looks as communication as a goal oriented behavior.o Does it have to be ethical and/or honest? Theorists study lying and deceiving, because although it is unethical, it is a part of our everyday communication.o Does it have to include symbolic actions?o Does it include cognition, thought and perception?o Does it have to be human-to-human? Communication theorists only study human-to-human communication- Communication: A process which individuals use symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environment.o Process: dynamic, ongoing, unending occurrence that tends to change over time.o Symbols: arbitrary labels or representation of phenomenon.- It is important to define communication so that we actually know what constitutes and what does not constitute communication behavior in the real world. If we did not defineour object of study, then one could choose to study anything and claim it's communication. We need some boundaries for our discipline.- There are three models of communication: linear, interactional, and transactional.- Linear Model of Communication: the creation of the message by the sender; taking the pure ideas, thoughts, or feelings that is then sent to a receiver through a channel.o Sender: the person that has the ideas, thoughts, or feelings in their heads that they are trying to get across in some way; the person with the message.o Encoding: the creation of the message by the sender; taking the pure ideas, thoughts, or feelings of the sender, labeling them with symbols, and organizing them in some way.o Channel: medium through which we send out our messages, how we sent the message. Typically done through the five senses. It is the receiver’s job to figure out what the message means.o Decoding: the process of taking symbols and turning them back into the pure ideas, thoughts, and feelings of the sender.o Noise: anything that can interfere with the sending and receiving of a message. Physical (external): anything that is external to the participant that interferes with the sending and receiving of messages. It can be visual as well. Semantic: not understanding the meaning of words. Psychological: Are prejudices, biases, predispositions about the person who is talking and/or what they are talking about. Physiological: what’s going on inside your body (i.e. tired, sick).- Interactive Model of Communication: view of communication as the sharing of meaning with feedback that links source and receiver. The two-way, or circular, model.o This model of communication is like two liner models on top of each other. o The interactive model introduces the concept of feedback and field of experience.o This process suggests that communication is ongoing.o A person can be either a sender or receiver in this process, but they can’t be bothsimultaneously.o Feedback: the response to the message. It allows the sender to know the meaning the receiver got from the message.o Field of Experience: all of a communicators past experiences. o This model of communication has been criticized because it assumes that two people are speaking and listening, but not at the same time.o It doesn’t consider nonverbal communication.-Transactional Model of Communication: view of communication as the simultaneous sending and receiving of messages.o This simultaneous communication can happen because of nonverbal communication.o In this model of communication there are fields of communication and there are overlap between them.o In order for correspondence to take place, there must be some overlap of field of experience. The more overlap, the better the correspondence.o Both parties are mutually responsible for the creation of meaningo An example of this would be talking over each other or seeing that someone is bored.- Context: environmentsin which communication takes place.- 7 contexts of communication:o Intrapersonal: communication with yourself. Role of cognition Decision making Attributions about others Attributions about self Persuasion Self-esteem: the degree of positive orientation people have about them selves.o Interpersonal: face-to-face communication between people. Relationship development Relationship maintenance Relationship dissolution Power and control Attractiono Small group: communication among at least three individuals. Problem solving Leadership Communication networks: communication patterns through which information flows. Roles: positions of group members and their relationship to the group. Synergy: the intersection of multiple perspectives in a small group. Power Normso Organizational: communication within and among large extended environments. Culture Power Morale Worker satisfaction Hierarchy: an organizing principle whereby things or people are ranked one above the other. Productivityo Public/rhetorical: public speaking and/or persuasion. Ethos, logos, and pathos Speech and text criticism Communication apprehension: fear of public speaking.o Mass/Mediated: communication to a large audience via various channels. Effects on culture New media: computer related technology. Mass communication allows both the senders and the receivers to experience control.o Intercultural: Communication between and among people of different cultures. Between and among cultures Co-cultures: groups of individuals who are part of the same larger culture,but who can be classified around various identities. How culture affects communication GenderIntroduction to theory Theory: any conceptual representation or explanation of a phenomenon.o Stephen Little John’s definition.o The key to this is that a theory does not have to include an explanation. Taxonomy: conceptual representation of categories of a phenomenon.o This is an organizational system.o It enables us to understand whatever the concept is better.o Example: Marwell and Schmidt’s compliance gaining strategies. These strategiesare the bottom level of the taxonomy. There are 16 different strategies. Similar strategies are then grouped together. This grouping


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UMD COMM 250 - Exam #1 Study Guide

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