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Chapter 1-Defining CommunicationWhat are the issues involved in defining communication?1. Whether or not it needs to be intentional?2. Needs to be correspondence?Does the message sent out need to= the message received3. Needs to be successful?Some believe to have success need to achieve our goals4. Needs to be ethical?Should we study unethical ideas?Ex. Lying behavior and then publish data teach people how to lie5. Include symbolic actions?Verbal vs. non-verbal6. Include cognition, thought of perceptiontalking to yourself is it enough?Do we need feedback, a sender, and receiver?7. Need to be human to human interaction?Talking to dogs?Definition of communication:A process in which individuals use symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environmentWhy is it important to define communication?Communication scholars may approach the interpretation of communication differently because of differences in scholarly valuesModels of the communication process (3)1. Linearsendermessagetarget/receiverall the communication takes place in a CHANNEL: the pathway to communication2. Interactionalthis is a 2 way communication process between communicatorsfrom senderreceiver and receivesenderFEEDBACK: the response to a message: is essential in this modelLets the communicator know if the message is received and the extent to which meaning is achievedCan be nonverbal or verbalcan be intentional or unintentional3. Transactionalunderscores the simultaneous sending and receiving messages in a communication episodethe process is cooperative: sender and receiver are mutually responsible for the effect and effectiveness of communicationNoise:4 types of noise1. Semantic noise: slang, jargon, or specialized language2. Physical: (external) exists outside of the reader3. Psychological: a communicator’s prejudices, biases, and predispositions toward another or a message4.physiological: biological influences on the comm process exists if you or the speaker is ill, fatigued, or hungryCommunication Contexts1.Intrapersonal: communication with oneself what goes on inside your head even when you are with someone elserole of cognitiondecision makingattributions about otherspersuasionattributions about slef2.Interpersonal: face to face communication between peoplerelationship developmentrelationship maintenancerelationship dissolutionpower and controlattraction3.Small group: comm among at least 3 individuals they have a common bond/ high degree of togetherness= cohesivecohesive: the degree of togetherness between and among communicatorsleadership, problem solving, communication networks, power, norms4.Organizational group: communication within and among large extended environmentshierarchyculture, power, morale, worker satisfaction, productivity5.Public/rhetorical communication: the dissemination of information from one person to many others (Oprah to audience)AristotleEthos, logos, pathosSpeech and text criticismCommunication apprehension6.Mass Media: channels of delivery modes for mass messagesnew media: computer related technologyeffects on culture7.Cultural: communication between and among individuals whose cultural backgrounds varyco-cultures: groups of people who are apart of the same larger culture, but who can be classified around various identities (age, race, sex)genderhow culture affects commbetween and among cultures8. Healthinterpersonal, public health, risk messages, diffusion, networksChapter 2- Introduction to TheoryDefinition of theory:Stephen Littlejohn: any conceptual representation OR explanation of a communication phenomenonDoes not need explanationMary John Smith: a set of statements specifying an explanatory relationship between 2 or more classes of phenomenonTheory HAS TO include an explanation explanation works like relationship between concepts (link)Theory vs. Taxonomy and ModelTaxonomy: a conceptual representation of categories of a phenomenon grouping of things, DON’T need explanationLittlejohn would consider taxonomy a theory**Model: a simplified version of realitySpecifies relationships between conceptsTemporal orderAlways has explanation that goes with the model**Mary john smith and littlejohn would consider this a model because there is an explanation***we follow Littlejohn’s definition because it is broad!!!Goals of Theory1.Describe (to understand) it betterWhat?Put it in an intelligible frameEx. Taxonomy2. Explainhow and/or why?3. Predict4. ControlSocial changeChange the thinking of the masses**Definition of Communication TheoryA way to describe, explain, predict and/or control human communication behaviorMeta-theory: theory about theoryDef: body of speculation on the nature of theory and researchWhat are the assumptions that scholars make when thinking about creating theory in our fieldMeta-theoretical assumptions1. Ontological: identifying what comm looks like in the real worldbranch of philosophy concerned with studying the nature of reality3 questions:1. Do humans make real choices?Yes: we use comm in real world to achieve goalsGoal oriented behaviorEx. If I want you to like me I will,Be nice, flatter you, do nice thingsNo: behavior in response to stimuliNo choice perspectiveAs long as certain stimuli are present, people will act in certain ways and have no choice in acting that wayWant to PREDICT human comm behaviorYou can’t have choice or else can’t predict2. Is human experience basically individual or social?Social: believe people work together to negotiate meaning or come to a common understandingPeople engage in interaction and negotiate meaning need two people to do soIndividual: no choice perspective people act individually in societyCome in contact with stimuli and then make them act the way they do3. Is human experience contextualized?No: if the context is the same throughout, then context does not matterYes: communication rules depend on contextYou behave differently with close friends vs. with strangers2. Epistemology: Branch of philosophy that studies knowledgebest research methods to use4 questions1. Can knowledge exist before experience?Yes: innate senses that allow to know without investigation any furtherJust know without experience not liking a food without trying itNo: survey people, watch, research, observe vicariously or personally must observe others to learn2. Can knowledge be certain?Social: Yes: once we learn something, it will always be that wayHumanist: No: communication is always


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UMD COMM 250 - Exam 1 study guide

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