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Chapter 1—Thinking About Communication: Definitions, Models, & EthicsDefining CommunicationDifficultImportanceTo give credibility to the academic discipline of CommunicationProvide FocusDefinitionProcess in which individuals use symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environmentKey Terms in CommunicationProcesscould be ongoing, complex, have many steps or piecesSymbolsVerbal, nonverbalConcrete – represents an objectAbstract – represents thought or ideaMeaningWhat people extract from a message (interpret)Establishing meaning – construct a desired message through the use of symbolsEnvironmentSituation or context in which communication occursElements include time, place, historical period, relationship, speaker’s and listener’s cultural backgroundsIntentionality – “is all behavior communication?”Messages sent unintentionally still fit the definition of communication“you cannot not communicate”Palo Alto team from Stanford (1950s)Broadened definition of communication, making it virtually synonymous with behaviorModels of Understanding: Communication as Action, Interaction and TransactionModelsSimplified representations of the communication processCommunication as Action: Linear Model (One-Way)EncodingThe creation of the messageAssociated w/ senderTransferring thoughts & feelings, labeling them w/ symbols, & organizing them in a way to create the messageMessageCreated by sender; meaning they are trying to get acrossChannelMeans of sending the messageActs as a mode of transportationBy the use of the 5 sensesDecodeReceiver looks @ message & looks @ true thoughts & feelings of it to figure it outNoiseAnything that interferes w/ the sending or receiving of messagesPhysical (external)Anything outside the sender & the receiver that can interfere w/ sending & reception of messagesSemanticPertains to word meaningJargon/SlangPsychologicalOne’s own thoughtsPhysiologicalHaving to do w/ the bodyTired, hungry, sick, disabilityCommunication as Interaction: the Interactive Model (Two-Way)View of communication as the sharing of meaning with feedback that links source and receiverExample: texting or talkingFeedbackCommunication given to the source by the receiver to indicate understanding (meaning)Field of ExperienceOverlap of sender’s and receiver’s culture, experiences, and heredity in communicationExperienceEverything you are (race, gender, age)You bring this to every communication you go throughOne’s field of experience needs to be able to overlap w/ another’s for communication to happenLike linear view, criticized because model suggests one person acts as a sender while the other acts as receiver in a communication encounterCommunication as Transaction: Transactional ModelView of communication as the simultaneous sending and receiving of messagesRequires us to recognize the influence of one message on anotherOne message builds on previous one; therefore, there is an interdependency between and among the components of the communicationField of experiences are mergedChapter 2 – Thinking About the Field: Traditions & ContextsContext affects appropriate communicationCommunication exists in a contextContextsEnvironments in which communication takes placeAffects appropriate communicationContexts of Communication (IISOPMIH)Intrapersonal – communication with oneselfRole of cognitionDecision makingAttributions about othersAttributions about selfSelf esteem – degree of positive orientation people have about themselvesPersuasionInterpersonal – face to face communicationRelationship developmentRelationship maintenanceRelationship dissolutionPower and controlattractionSmall Group – communication with a group of people (3 or more)Problem solvingLeadershipCommunication networks – communication patterns through which information flowsPowernormsOrganizational – communication within and among large and extended environmentsExtremely diverse in that organizational communication necessarily entails interpersonal encounters, public-speaking opportunities, small group situations, and mediated experiencesCulturePowerMoraleWorker satisfactionHierarchyproductivityPublic/Rhetorical—communication to a large audienceAristotleEthos- convince audience of expertise through display of knowlegePathos- emotional appealLogos- logical appealSpeech and Text CriticismCommunication Apprehension – general sense of fear of speaking before an audienceMass/Mediated – communication to a very large audience through mediated formsEffects on CultureInterculturalBetween and among culturesCo-cultures – groups of individuals who are part of the same larger culture, but who can be classified around various identitiesHow culture affects communicationResearchers and theorists purposely explore the interactions and events between and among people of different culturesResearchers inherently accept the fact that human behavior is culturally basedGenderHealth – communication between and among members of different culturesInterpersonalPublic HealthDiffusionNetworksChapter 3 – Thinking About Theory and ResearchTheoryAn abstract system of concepts and their relationships among these concepts that help us to understand a phenomenonClass Definition: “Any conceptual representation or explanation of a phenomenon” – Stephen Littlejohnanother interpretation : “any theory is a representation or explanation of a communication”“A set of statements specifying an explanatory relationship between two or more classes of phenomenon” – Mary John Smiththeory needs to include explanationneeds to include a “how or why”different theorists have different approaches to theoryComponentsConceptsWords or terms that label the most important elements in a theoryCohesiveness (Groupthink)Dissonance (Cognitive Dissonance Theory)Lack of harmonySelf (Symbolic Interaction Theory)Scene (Dramatism)Real conceptsConcepts that are directly observableEx. Personal rituals or spatial distanceNominal conceptsConcepts that are not directly observableEx. Democracy or loveRelationshipsThe ways in which the concepts of a theory relate to one anotherEx. Ch.1—three different models of communication, the concepts involved w/ each one very similar. The relationship specified among the concepts in each model was the difference.GoalsDescribe (to understand)What?Put in an “intelligible frame”ExplanationHow or whyIn order to explain, you must describePredictionEx. Expectancy Violation theory & Cognitive


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UMD COMM 250 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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