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I Syncretism – following more than one religion at a timea Confucian – customs and traditionsb Buddhist – worship & ritualsc Taoist – outlook, literature, philosophy, art, musicII Originsa Confucianism and Taoism are indigenous to Chinai Chongwo – centerb Buddhism brought to China by Indian Buddhist monks around 100 A.D.III Traditional Chinese Beliefsa Before Confucianism and Daoism became full fledged religions, Chinese held beliefs which helped to form their two religious traditions:i Kiuii Ying-YangIV Beliefsa Spirits: early system was polytheistic; spirits active in natureb Shang Ti or Tian: high power ruling the universe; a personal Godc Ancestor Worship: ancestors die, become spirits watching over usd Yang and Yin: male/female, strong/weak, light/dark; opposite but complimentarye Divination: The Book of Changes; methods of knowing futuref Harsh life, natural catastrophes; forced to understand patterns of nature to live in harmonyV The Goal of Chinese Life…a …is to achieve harmonyi Confucianism seeks harmony in social and political lifeii Daoism seeks harmony with natureVI Confucianisma achieve Harmony by following the right path (Dao) or right methodb harmony consists of right relationships among members of the society; can be taughtVII Life of Confuciusa Named K’ung Ch’iub Given title “Kung Fu Tzu” (Great Teacher)c Born in noble familyd Father died when he was a childe Was a tax collectorf Then became a teacherg Later part of life became minister in governmentVIII Main Concepts in Confucianisma Ren (Jen); love for humanityb Li propriety; being appropriate, having right etiquettesc Xiao - Filal Piety (Respect for Elders), Five Relationships:i Father – Sonii Elder brother – Younger brotheriii Husband – Wifeiv Friend – Friendv Ruler - Citizend Wen – appreciation for aesthetic values, such as art, literature, musice Junzi – the ideal human beingi Not selfish or egoistii Man of knowledge, well-roundediii Not narrow-minded, willing to listen to opinion of othersIX Five Classics and Analectsa Probably written after Confucius, subsequently edited by Confucian scholarsb Became core curriculum of Chinese classical educational systemX The Five Classicsa The Book of History: account of Chinese rulers, various dynastiesb Book of Poetry: classical poems with moral intentc Book of Changes (I-Ching): divination, basic patterns of the universed Book of Rites and Ceremoniese The Spring and Autumn Annals: historical record of Confucius’ home state, Loui Analects is the book of Confucius’ sayingsXI Confucianisma Is it more of a religious system or a political and social system?b Both:i Religious system; Shang Ti or Tian, customs and ritualsii Political and social system; focus on right relationships among members of the societyXII Lao Tzu (Laozi) 600 B.C.a Means “Old Master” or “Old Teacher”b Nickname for gentle and sweet naturec Teachings found in his book Tao Te Ching (Tao and its Power)XIII Taoism (Daoism)a A reaction against Confucianismb It emphasizes:i Individual rather than societyii Spontaneity rather than obedienceiii Goes beyond mundane political and social rigidity, looks for higher valuesXIV Main Characteristics of Taoa Cannot be told – nameless and formless, transcendsb Origin of everythingc Finds its way, like water flowingd Wu Wei: without asserting forcee Simplicity – grandeur in thought but simple in everyday lifef Everything is relative (Yang-Yin)g Return to TaoXV Which Chinese beliefs are more prominent in Confucianism?a Li – propriety; Ancestor worshipb Tang Shi – high power which controls naturec Ren or Jen – Social and political aspectsXVI Which Chinese beliefs are more prominent in Daoism?a Yang and Yinb Nature – living with and adjusting with naturec SpontaneityXVII Origins of Shintoa Indigenous religious tradition of Japan (Nippon, Wei Wei)b In Japanese, “Shen Do” (the Way of Spirits). Called so after the name for “Butsu-do” (the Way of Buddha)XVIII Shintoa ‘Kami No Michi’ (The Way of Kamis or Spirits)b Kamis active in naturei Powers of natureii Can be good or eviliii Need to be in harmony with themiv Everything is filled with Kamisc Kamis unpredictableXIX Goal of Japanese life…a …is to live in Harmony with Kamisb How can such harmony be achieved?i This is explained in the Myth of CreationXX Myth of Creationa In the beginning there was nothing it was absolute chaos which somehow came to reside by several kamis from amongst the kamis. Two of them became primordial or cosmic kamis. They are izanami and izaugi, which literally means “female who invites” and “male who invites,” respectively.XXI Myth of Creation- Motifsa Four main motifs for careful attention:i Izanami and Izaugi gave birth to the other kamis, one was “Fire Kami”…ii Izanami burned, became uglyiii Embarrassed by her looks she goes to the underworldiv Izaugi searches for herv He becomes dirty; takes purifying bath in oceanXXII Chronicles of Japana The Kojiki (712 A.D.)b The Nihongi (720 A.D.)c They are written after the accounts given in Chinese literatureXXIII Worship at Shrinesa Entrance to Torii (Shinto Shrine)b Pass through the gatewayc Wash your hands and mouth at water basin inside the entranced Kami is enshrined in a room where the worshipers goi Bow and ring bell to get Kami’s attentione Daily worship occurs in small shrines called Kamidan, found in every houseXXIV Shinto Traditionsa Special Festivals (Matsuri)b 7-5-3: Girls brought to shrines for blessings at the ages 3 & 7, boys at age 5c Shamans are generally femalesi Have special powers to communicate with kamis, who can foretell what lies in the future1. What is syncreticism?Follow more than one religious tradition2. Religious tradition native to China/Japan?China- Confuciasm/DaoismJapan- Shinto3. When did Buddhism arrive in China/Japan?China-100 A.D.Japan-780 A.D.4. Origin of words China/ Japan what do they mean?China- “Chongwo”-Center of universeJapan- land of the rising sun5. Ancient Chinese BeliefsAncestorship- funeral, ritual, ceremony, necessaryYang Yin- light/dark, opposite, everything made out ofI Ching- Book of Changes- patterns of nature adjust yourself6. Original name of ConfuciusRung Fu ti- great teacher7. Where and when was our Confucius bornLou (Near Bejing) 551 B.C.8. What was he by professionTax collector9. Main concept of ConfucianismJen(Ren)- Love for humanityLi- EducateXiao- Filal PIETY ( Respect for Elders),Five

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UCF REL 2300 - Religions of China

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