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Pace PSY 112 - Psychology (Ch. 6 & 7)

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Chapter 6: Memory- Encoding- process of transforming what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory- Storage- process of maintaining information in memory over time- Retrieval- process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded andstored- Memory- ability to store and retrieve informationEncoding: Transforming Perceptions into Memories- Memories are made by combining info we already have in our brain with new info that comes in through our senses- Memories are constructed, not recorded, and encoding is the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memorySemantic Encoding- One study, researchers presented participants with series of words and asked them to make one of 3 judgements:o Semantic judgements: required participants to think about meaning of the words(is hat a type of clothing?)o Rhyme judgments: required participants to think about the sound of the words (Does hat rhyme with cat?)o Visual judgments: required participants to think about appearance of the words (is HAT written uppercase or lowercase)- Semantic encoding- process of relating new info in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already stored in memoryVisual imagery encoding- Visual imagery encoding- process of storing new info by converting it into mental pictureso Can improve memory- Why does this work well?o Does same things as semantic encoding: when you create visual image, you relate incoming info to knowledge already in memoryo When you use visual imagery to encode words and other verbal info, you end up with two diff mental placeholders for items, a visual one and verbal oneOrganizational encoding- Organizational encoding- process of categorizing info according to relationships among a series of items- Ex: how servers can take order without writing anything down- Activates the upper surface of left frontal loveEncoding of survival-related information- Draws on elements of semantic, visual imagery, and organizational encoding- Encourages participants to engage in extensive planning, which in turn benefits memory and may account for much of the benefit of survival encoding- Encoding info with respect to its survival value is particularly effective method for increasing subsequent recall, perhaps b/c our memory systems have evolved in a way that allows us to remember especially well info that is relevant to our survivalStorage: Maintaining Memories over TimeSensory storage- Sensory memory- type of storage that holds sensory info for a few seconds or less- Iconic memory- fast-decaying store of visual info- Echoic memory- fast-decaying store of auditory infoShort-term storage and working memory- Short-term memory- holds nonsensory info for more than a few seconds but less than a minute- Limited in how long it can hold info and how much info it can hold- Rehearsal- process of keeping info in short-term memory by mentally repeating ito Trick to get around natural limitations of short-term memory- Chunking- involved combining small pieces of info into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memoryo Group several letters into a single meaningful item- Working memory- active maintenance of info in short-term storageo Includes subsystems that store and manipulate visual images or verbal informationLong-term storage- Long-term memory- type of storage that holds info for hours, days, weeks, or yearso Unlike short-term, no capacity limits- Hippocampal region acts as a kind of “index” that links together all of these otherwise separate bits and pieces so that we remember them as one memory- Anterograde amnesia- inability to transfer new info from short-term into long-termo Occurs when hippocampus region is damaged- Retrograde amnesia- inability to retrieve info that was acquired before particular date, usually date of an injury or surgery- Consolidation- process by which memories become stable in the braino Shortly after encoding, memories exist in fragile state in which they can be easily disrupted; once consolidation has occurred, they are more resistant to disruptiono Fully consolidated memory becomes a permanent fixture in the brain- Reconsolidation- memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, thus requiring them to be consolidated againMemories, neurons, and synapses- Research suggests that memory storage depends critically on spaces b/t neurons- Long-term potentiation (LTP)- process whereby communication across synapse b/t neurons strengthens connection, making further communication easiero Occurs in several pathways within hippocampuso Can last for long time- Memory storage depends on changes in synapses, and LTP increases synaptic connectionRetrieval: Bringing Memories to MindRetrieval cues: reinstating the past- One of best way to retrieve info from inside your head is to encounter info outside your that is somehow connected to it- Retrieval cue- external info that is associated with stored info and helps bring it to mindo Can be external contexts and inner states- Encoding specificity principle- retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create specific way in which info was initially encoded- State-dependent retrieval- tendency for information to be better recalled when person is in same state during encoding and retrieval- Transfer-appropriate processing- idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when encoding and retrieval contexts of situations matchConsequences of retrieval- Retrieval can impair subsequent memory- Retrieval-induced forgetting- process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related itemso Can impact memory in everyday life: Can occur during conversations Can affect eyewitness memory- Can change subsequent memory, what we remember from an experienceSeparating the components of retrieval- Retrieval can be separated into effort we make while trying to remember what happened in the past and successful recovery of stored info- Neuroimaging studies suggest that trying to remember activates left frontal lobe, whereas successful recovery of stored info activates hippocampus and regions in brain related to sensory aspects of an experienceMultiple Forms of Memory: How the Past ReturnsExplicit and implicit memory- Explicit memory- when people consciously or intentionally retrieve past experiences- Implicit memory- past experiences influence later behavior and performance, even


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