New version page

Pace PSY 112 - Psychology Notes (Ch.11-13)

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4 out of 12 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 12 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 11: DevelopmentPrenatality: womb with a viewPrenatal development- Zygote- fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both an egg and sperm- Germinal stage- 2-week period that beings at conceptiono Once-celled zygote divides into two cells, then four, and so on- Embryonic stage- period that lasts from 2nd week until about 8th weeko Embryo continues to divide and its cells begin to differentiate- Fetal stage- period that lasts from 9th week until birtho Brain beings to generate axons and dendriteso Myelination- formation of fatty sheath around axons of neuronPrenatal environment- Womb is environment that has powerful impact on development- Teratogens- agents that impair development o “monster makers”o Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)- development disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by mother during pregnancyo Tobacco - Although fetus cannot see much in the womb, it can hear sounds and become familiar with those it hears often, such as its mother’s voice- Fetal environment has important physical and psychological influences on fetus- Food pregnant woman eats, teratogens, or agents that impair fetal development, can affect fetusInfancy and Childhood: Becoming a Person- Infancy- stage of development that begins at birth and lasts b/t 18-24 monthsPerceptual and motor development- Newborns are especially attentive to social stimuli- Motor development- emergence of ability to execute physical actionso Reaching, grasping, crawling, and walking- Reflexes- specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation- Development of sophisticated behaviors tend to obey two general rules:o Cephalocaudal rule- describes tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from head to feet “top-to-bottom” ruleo Proximodistal rule- tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from center to periphery “inside-to-outside” ruleCognitive Development- Cognitive development- emergence of ability to think and understando B/t infancy and adulthood, children must come to understand 3 important things How physical world works How their minds represent the world How other mind’s represent the world- Piaget suggested that cognitive development occurs in 4 stages:o Sensorimotor stage- period of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy Infants at this stage are mainly busy using their ability to sense and move to acquire info about world Schemas- theories about the way the world works Assimilation- infants apply their schemas to novel situations Accommodation- infants revise their schemas in light of new info Object performance- belief that objects exist even when they are not visibleo Preoperational stage- stage of cognitive development that begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6 years, during which children develop preliminary understanding of the physical worldo Concrete operations stage- stage of cognitive development that begins at about 6 years and ends about 11 years, during which children learn how actions or operations can transform “concrete” objects of physical world Conservation- notion that quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in object’s appearanceo Formal operational stage- final stage of cognitive development that begins around age 11, during which children learn about abstract concepts Childhood ends when this stage begins- Childhood- period that begins at about 18-24 months and lasts until about 11-14 yearso Preoperational and concrete operational stage- Egocentrism- failure to understand that the world appears differently to different peopleo Hallmark of preoperational stage Social development- Attachment- emotional bond- Infants who are deprived of opportunity to become attached experience a variety of negative consequences- Strange situation- behavioral test used to determine child’s attachment style- Temperaments- characteristics patterns of emotional reactivity- Internal working model of relationships- set of beliefs about self, primary caregiver, andrelationship b/t themo Infants with secure attachment style as though they are certain that their primary caregivers will respond when they feel insecureo Infants with avoidant attachment style act as though they are certain that their primary caregiver will not respondMoral Development- Preconventional stage- stage of moral development in which morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actoro Concluded by Kohlberg that most children are at this stage- Conventional stage- stage of moral development in which morality of an action is primarily determined by extent to which it conforms to social ruleso People at this stage believe that everyone should uphold generally accepted norms of their culture- Postconventional stage- stage of moral development in which morality of an action is determined by set of general principles that reflect core valuesAdolescence: mind the gap- Adolescence- period of development that begins with onset of sexual maturity and lasts until beginning of adulthood- Puberty- bodily changes associated with sexual maturity- Primary sex characteristics- bodily structures that are directly involved in reproductiono Menstruations and enlargement of the testes, etc- Secondary sex characteristics- odily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity, but are not directly involved in reproductiono Enlargement of breast, widening of hips (girls), facial hair, lowering of voiceProtraction of adolescenceSexualityParents and peersAdulthood: change we can’t believe in- Adulthood- stage of development that begins around 18-21 years and ends at deathChanging abilitiesChapter 12: Personality- Personality- individual’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feelingPersonality: what it is and how it’s measuredDescribing and explaining personality- Explanations of personality differences are concerned with:o Prior events that can shape individual’s personalityo Anticipated events that might motivate person to reveal particular personality characteristicsMeasuring personality- General personality measures can be classified broadly into personality inventories and projective techniques- Self-report- method in which people provide subjective information about their own thoughts, feelings, or behaviors, typically via questionnaire or interviewo Usual strategy is to collect sets of self-descriptive statements that indicate


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Psychology Notes (Ch.11-13) and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Psychology Notes (Ch.11-13) and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?