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Pace PSY 112 - Psychology Notes (Ch. 8-10)

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Chapter 8: Emotion and MotivationEmotional ExperienceWhat is emotion?- Emotion- positive or negative experience that is associated with particular pattern of physiological activity- Map of emotional experience suggests that any def of emotion must include two things:o Emotional experiences are good or bado These experiences are have characteristic levels of bodily arousalThe emotional body- William James suggested that events that produce emotion might actually have oppositeorder- James-Lange theory- stimulus triggers activity in body, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the braino Suggest by psychologist Carl Langeo Emotional experience is consequence, not cause, of our physiological reactions to objects and events in the world- Cannon-Bard theory- stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in body and emotional experience in the braino Proposed by Walter Cannon, James’s former student who didn’t like his idea, andPhilip Bard, Cannon’s student. - Two-factor theory- emotions are based on inferences about causes of physiological arousalo Proposed by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer- Cannon and Bard were right, not nearly enough bodily reactions to account of wide variety of emotions that humans can experience- Whereas James and Lange suggested that diff emotions are diff experiences of diff patterns of bodily activity. - Schachter and Singer claimed that diff emotions are merely diff interpretations of single pattern of bodily activity, which they called “undifferentiated physiological arousal”Emotional Brain- Amygdala plays special role in producing emotions- People with amygdala damage often don’t feel ear when the see a threat, they feel free when they experience a threat- Appraisal- evaluation of emotion-relevant aspects of stimulus- Psychologist Joseph LeDoux mapped route that info about stimulus takes through brain and found that it is transmitted simultaneously along two distinct routes:o Fast pathway: goes from thalamus directly to amygdalao Slow pathway: goes from thalamus to cortex then to amygdalaRegulation of emotion- Emotion regulation- strategies people use to influence their own emotional experienceo 9/10 people report that they attempt to regulate their emotional experience at least once a day- Reappraisal- changing one’s emotional experience by changing the way one thinks aboutemotion-eliciting stimuluso One of most effective strategies for emotion regulationo Some people are better at it than othersEmotional Communications- Emotional expression- observable sign of emotional stateCommunicative expression- Charles Darwin suggested that emotional expressions are convenient way for one animalto let another animal know how it is feeling and therefore how it is prepared to act- Universality hypothesis- emotional expressions have same meaning for everyone- Words are symbols, but facial expressions are signs- Facial feedback hypothesis- emotional expressions can cause emotional experiences they signifyDeceptive expression- Display rule- norm for appropriate expression of emotion- Obeying a display rule requires several techniques:o Intensification: involves exaggerating expression of one’s emotiono Disintensification: involves muting expression of one’s emotiono Masking: involves expressing one emotional while feeling anothero Neutralizing: involves feeling an emotion but displaying no emotion- Micro-expressions happen so quick, almost impossible to detect with naked eye- 4 features that seem to distinguish b/t sincere and insincere facial expressions:o Morphology: certain facial muscles tend to resist conscious control, and for trained observer, these “reliable muscles” are quite revealingo Symmetry: sincere expressions are bit more symmetrical than insincere expressionso Duration: sincere expressions tend to last b/t half second and five seconds, and expressions that last shorter or longer period are more likely to be insincereo Temporal pattern: sincere expressions appear and disappear smoothly over few seconds, whereas insincere expressions tend to have more abrupt onsets and offsets- Polygraph can distinguish true from false utterances with better-than-chance accuracy, but its error rate is troublingly highMotivation: Getting Moved- Motivation- purpose for or psycholigcal cause of an action- Unlike robots, humans can act b/c their emotions move them, and emotions do this in two diff ways:o Emotions provide people with information about the worldo Objectives toward which people striveFunction of Emotion- Hedonic principle- claim that people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid paino Our emotional experience can be thought of as gauge that ranges from bad to good- Aristotle argued that hedonic principle explained everything there was to know about human motivation: “It is for the sake of this that we all do all that we do”- Plato and Aristotle suggest that pleasure isn’t just food: it is what good meansInstincts and drives- William James called natural tendency to seek particular goal an instincto He defines as: faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends- Behaviorists rejected concept of instinct on two grounds:o Believed that behavior should be explained by external stimuli that evoke it and not by hypothetical internal states on which it presumably dependso Behaviorists wanted nothing to do with notion of inherited behavior b/c they believed that all complex behavior was learned- Homeostasis- tendency for system to take action to keep itself in particular state- Drive- internal state caused by physiological needso According to Hull and Spence, it isn’t food that organisms find rewarding, it is thereduction of the drive for foodo Hunger is a drive- Psychologist William McDougall called study of motivation “hormic psychology” What the body wants- Abraham Maslow attempted to organize list of human urges in meaningful wayo Noted that some needs must be satisfied before others, and built hierarchy of needs o Suggested that, as a rule, needs below it are met- Bulimia nervosa- eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purgingo People with this ingest large quantities of food in relatively short period and thentake laxatives or induce vomiting to purge food from their bodies- Anorexia nervosa- eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intakeo People with this tend to have distorted body image that leads them to believe that they


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