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Pace PSY 112 - Psychology Notes (Ch. 14-16)

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Chapter 14: Stress and HealthSources of Stress: What Gets to YouStressful EventsChronis StressorsPerceived control over stressful eventsStress Reactions: All Shook UpPhysical ReactionsPsychological reactionsStress Management: Dealing with ItMind ManagementBody managementSituation managementPsychology of Illness: Mind over MatterPsychological effects of illnessRecognizing illness and seeking treatmentSomatic symptom disordersOn being a patientPatient-practitioner interactionPsychology of Health: Feeling GoodPersonality and healthHealth-promoting behaviors and self-regulationChapter 15: Psychological DisordersDefining Mental DisordersConceptualizing mental disordersClassifying disorders: the DSMCausation of disordersNew approach to understanding mental disorders: RDoCDangers of labelingChapter 14: Stress and Health- Stressors- specific events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person’s well-being- Stress- physical and psychological response to internal or external stressors- Health psychology- subfield of psychology concerned with ways psychological factors influence the causes and treatment of physical illness and maintenance of healthSources of Stress: What Gets to YouStressful Events- Thomas Holmes and Richard Rach proposed that major life changes cause stress and that increased stress causes illness- Happiness can sometimes even counteract effects of negative events- However, positive events often require readjustment and preparedness that many people find stressfulChronis Stressors- Chronis stressors- sources of stress that occur continuously or repeatedly- Linked to social relationships- Can also be linked to particular environment- Environmental psychology: scientific study of environmental effects on behavior and healthPerceived control over stressful events- Stressors challenge you to do something, take some action to eliminate or overcome thestressor- Events are more stressful when there is nothing to do, no way to deal with challenge- Expecting that you will have control over what happens to you is associated with effectiveness in dealing with stressStress Reactions: All Shook UpPhysical Reactions- Flight-or-fight response- an emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for actiono Coined by Walter Cannon – recognizes that might be body’s first mobilization to any threat- Brain activation in response to threat occurs in hypothalamus, stimulating neaby pituitary gland, releases hormone known as ACTH- General adaptation syndrome (GAS)- three-stage physiological stress response that appears regardless of stressors that is encounteredo Hans Selye, Canadian physiciano GAS is nonspecific, response doesn’t vary, no matter what source of repeated stresso Occurs in 3 phases: Alarm phase: body rapidly mobilizes its resources to respond to threat- Equivalent to fight-or-flight response Resistance phase: body adapts to its high state of arousal as it tries to cope with stressor- Shuts down unnecessary processes: digestion, growth, and sex drive Exhaustion phase: body’s resistance collapses- Defenses create gradual damage as they operate, leading - Telomeres- caps at ends of each chromosome that protect ends of chromosomes an prevent them from sticking to each othero Each time sell divides, tolemeres become slightly shorter- Telomerase- enzyme that rebuilds telomeres at tips of chromosomes- Immune system- complex response system that protects body from bacteria and other foreign substances- Lymphocytes- produce antibodies that fight infection- Heart and circulatory system are sensitive to stress- Type A behavior pattern- tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, a sense of time urgency, and competitive achievement strivingso Developed by Meyer Friedman and Ray RosenmanPsychological reactions- Primary appraisal: interpretation of stimulus as stressful or not- Secondary appraisal: determining whether stressor is something you can handle or not; whether you have control over the event- Burnout- state of physical, emotion, and mental exhaustion created by long-term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation. o Many succumb to symptoms of burnout: overwhelming exhaustion, deep cynicism and detachment from job, sense of ineffectiveness and lack of accomplishment.Stress Management: Dealing with ItMind Management- Stressful events are magnified in the mind; significant part of stress management is control of the mind- Repressive coping- avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint.- Rational coping- facing stressor and working to overcome ito Opposite of repressive coping, may seem most unpleasant and unnerving o Requires approaching, rather than avoiding, a stressor in order to lesson its longer-term negative impacto 3 step process: Acceptance: coming to realize that stressor exists and can’t be wishes away Exposure: attending to stressor, thinking about it, and even seeking it out Understanding: working out to find meaning of stressor in your life- Reframing- finding new or creative way to think about stressor that reduces its threato Can occur spontaneously if people are given opportunity to spend time thinking and writing about stressful events.- Stress inoculation training (STI)- reframing technique that helps people to cope w/ stressful situations by developing positive ways to think about situation.Body management- Meditation- practice of intentional contemplatingo Some call for attempts to clear mind of thought, others involving focusing on single thought, and others involve concentration on breathing or mantra- Relaxation therapy- technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the body- Relaxation response- condition of reduces muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure- Biofeedback- use of external monitoring device to obtain info about bodily function and possibly gain control over that functiono Goal of having high tech relaxationo Can help control physiological functions they’re not likely to become aware in other waysSituation management- Social support- aid gained through interacting with others- Overcoming stress by managing your situation can involve seeking out social support, engaging in religious experiences, or attempting to find humor in stressful events.Psychology of


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