UMass Amherst PSYCH 380 - Psych 380 Exam 2 Study Guide (13 pages)

Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 4 of 13 page document View the full content.
View Full Document

Psych 380 Exam 2 Study Guide



Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 4 of actual document.

View the full content.
View Full Document
View Full Document

Psych 380 Exam 2 Study Guide

113 views


Pages:
13
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 380 - Abnormal Psychology
Unformatted text preview:

Difference between fear and anxiety Fear is a state of immediate alarm in response to a serious known threat to one s well being Anxiety is a state of alarm in response to a vague sense of being in danger o Both have the same physiological features increase in respiration perspiration muscle tension etc o ex A tiger jumps out of the bushes and your amygdala reacts and you experience fear if you go somewhere else where there are bushes your fear instinct will act up again o We do not want to eliminate fear anxiety because it acts as a protective defense however when it becomes overwhelming and immobilizing you can start considering that it may be a disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Excessive anxiety under most circumstances and worry Symptoms o Restlessness fatigue o Difficulty concentrating o Muscle tension o Sleep problems o Symptoms must last at least six months Common in Western society Usually first appears in childhood or adolescence Around one quarter of those with GAD are currently in treatment GAD The Sociocultural Perspective o GAD is most likely to develop in people faced with social conditions that truly are dangerous o One of the most powerful forms of societal stress is poverty due to run down communities higher crime rates fewer opportunities and greater risk for health problems o Higher rates of GAD in lower SES groups GAD The Biological Perspective o Biological theorists believe that GAD is caused chiefly by biological factors o Supported by family pedigree studies o Biological relatives more likely to have GAD 15 than general population 6 o The closer the relative the greater the likelihood o There is however a competing explanation of shared environment o Children who are difficult as babies may grow up to have anxiety GABA inactivity o 1950s Benzodiazepines Valium Xanax found to reduce anxiety o Why Neurons have specific receptors like a lock and key Benzodiazepine receptors ordinarily receive gamma aminobutyric acid GABA common neurotransmitter in the brain o GABA carries inhibitory messages when received it causes a neuron to stop firing o Medication is a form of negative reinforcement because it decreases the behavior GAD The Cognitive Perspective o Initially theorists suggested that GAD is caused by maladaptive assumptions o It is a dire necessity for an adult human being to be loved or approved by every significant person in community o Awful and catastrophic when things are not the way one would like them to be o When these assumptions are applied to everyday life and to more and more events GAD may develop SUDS Subjective Units of Distress Phobias From the Greek word for fear persistent and unreasonable fears of particular objects activities or situations People with a phobia often avoid the object or thoughts about it Fear is a normal and common experience How do common fears differ from phobias o More intense and persistent fear o Greater desire to avoid the feared object or situation o Distress that interferes with functioning o Most phobias technically are categorized as specific Also two broader kinds o Specific phobias Persistent fears of specific objects or situations When exposed to the object or situation sufferers experience immediate fear Most common phobias of specific animals or insects heights enclosed spaces thunderstorms and blood Negative reinforcement paradigm feeling better when avoiding feared stimulus Each year close to 9 of all people in the U S have symptoms of specific phobia Many suffer from more than one phobia at a time Women outnumber men at least 2 1 Prevalence differs across racial and ethnic minority groups the reason is unclear Vast majority of people with a specific phobia do not seek treatment There is a valid reason we have these fears they are a protective mechanism and we seem to be biologically predisposed to having these fears Systematic desensitization Technique developed by Joseph Volpe Teach relaxation skills Create fear hierarchy Classical conditioning of phobia o EX girl was swimming in a pool and she ended up getting stuck underwater and accidentally pushed down by friends This entrapment caused fear which caused her to pair this entrapment with water and now is afraid of water because she associates water with being trapped and not able to breathe Other behavioral treatments o Flooding Forced non gradual exposure o Modeling Therapist confronts the feared object while the fearful person observes Social Anxiety Disorder Social phobia A severe and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur Benzodiazepines 9most common group of antianxiety drugs found to reduce anxiety fantastically effective as short term medication but can be habit forming Exposure treatments are biological treatments in which persons are exposed to the objects or situations they dread Cognitive therapy Rational emotive theory founded by Albert Ellis that helps clients identify and change the irrational assumptions and thinking that help cause their psychological disorder Social skills training therapy approach that helps people learn or improve social skills and assertiveness through role playing and rehearsing of desirable behaviors Agoraphobia An anxiety disorder where a person is afraid to be in public situations they can t escape or be helped if something happened the fear of being in public places or situations where escape might be difficult or help unavailable should they experience panic or become incapacitated Pervasive and complex Typically develop in 20 s or 30 s Panic Disorder Panic an extreme anxiety reaction can result when a real threat suddenly emerges The experience of panic attacks however is different o Panic attacks are periodic short bouts of panic that occur suddenly reach a peak and pass o Sufferers often fear they will die go crazy or lose control o Attacks happen in the absence of a real threat Panic disorder often but not always accompanied by agoraphobia Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Made up of two main components o Obsessions persistent thoughts ideas impulses or images that seem to invade a person s consciousness o Features of obsessions Thoughts that feel both intrusive and foreign Attempts to ignore or resist them trigger anxiety Take various forms wishes impulses images ideas doubts Have common themes dirt contamination violence and aggression orderliness religion sexuality o Compulsions repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that people feel they must


View Full Document

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Psych 380 Exam 2 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Psych 380 Exam 2 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?