UMass Amherst PSYCH 380 - Psych 380 Exam 4 Study Guide (7 pages)

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Psych 380 Exam 4 Study Guide



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Psych 380 Exam 4 Study Guide

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Pages:
7
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 380 - Abnormal Psychology
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haChildhood Disorders Know characteristics treatments prevalence causes and onset if applicable for the following disorders Disorders with adult counterparts Anxiety Disorders Children of all cultures typically experience some emotional behavioral problems as they encounter new situations o Bedwetting nightmares temper tantrums restlessness Worry is a common experience Children tend to worry more than parents think they do o General worries school performance getting into college etc Depression Disorders that usually change or disappear after childhood Elimination disorders Can be caused by traumatic experiences bad parenting Enuresis o Childhood disorder marked by repeated bedwetting or wetting of one s clothes o Daytime and nighttime o After successful potty training Encopresis o A childhood disorder characterized by repeated defecating in inappropriate places such as one s clothing Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder DMDD New disorder A mood disorder relative of depression Chronic irritability severe outbursts but NOT behavioral disorder o Mood disorder b c cry after outbursts feel bad even suicidal sometimes A childhood disorder marked by severe recurrent temper tantrums along with a persistent irritable or angry mood Separation Anxiety Disorder A disorder marked by excessive anxiety even panic whenever the person is separated from home a parent or another attachment figure Oppositional Defiant Disorder Repeatedly argumentative defiant angry irritable in some cases vindictive Different from mood disorder b c no depression linked Can become conduct disorder very small percentage though A childhood disorder in which children are repeatedly argumentative and defiant angry and irritable and in some cases vindictive Conduct Disorder Repeatedly violate the basic rights of others o Often aggressive physically cruel to people or animals o Begins between 7 15 years of age Ex girl locked up for armed robbery bothered that she got caught NOT that anyone could ve been hurt her baby was taken away DID NOT bother her A childhood disorder in which the child repeatedly violates the basic rights of others and displays aggression characterized by symptoms such as physical cruelty to animals or people the deliberate destruction or other people s property and the commission of various crimes Can carry into adulthood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder A childhood disorder marked by the inability to focus attention or overactive and impulsive behavior or both Methylphenidate aka Ritalin is a stimulant drug commonly used to treat ADHD o Causes more dopamine in the brain o Lack of dopamine means they are always searching for enjoyable things Great difficulty attending to tasks behave over actively or impulsively or both Frontal lobe left impulse control less active than normal not developing as quickly or as far Hyperactive impulsive no impulse control do things without thinking Evidence of symptoms in toddlerhood About of kids with ADHD also have learning communication disorders poor school performance misbehavior mood or anxiety problems difficulty interacting with other kids o Most commonly paired with ADHD are learning disabilities behavioral problems Can be diagnosed at age 12 need symptoms by then o Make sure not misdiagnosing the disorder Seems to come from biological causes abnormal dopamine activity or abnormalities in frontal striatal regions of brain o Not enough dopamine in the brain If main parent depressed for example child could develop ADHD to get a reaction from parent who usually pays no attention o Negative behavior gets attention negative reinforcement Throwing stuff gets attention keep throwing and get louder 80 of kids with ADHD receive treatment o Most common treatments are drug therapy behavioral therapy or a combination African American Hispanic American children are less likely than white Americans to get an ADHD diagnosis or undergo treatment for ADHD Disorders that begin in childhood and persist throughout life Autism Spectrum Disorder Must be observed in childhood to ever be diagnosed before 18 must be documented history of symptoms symptoms usually appear early in life before age 3 A developmental disorder marked by extreme unresponsiveness to others severe communication deficits and highly repetitive and rigid behaviors interests and activities No cures but ways to help symptoms Adults with autism mellowed out symptoms no tantrums or screaming like kids able to make eye contact more than kids conditioned better 1 68 kids born with autism Autism spectrum disorders are a group of disorders marked by impaired social interactions etc Autism first identified in 1943 Unresponsive to others uncommunicative repetitive and rigid Around 80 of all cases appear in boys Asperger s high functioning autism etc all different levels of severity on autism spectrum Something has gone awry in the brain development Doing a better job of identifying mild cases of autism As many as 90 of children with the disorder remain significantly disabled into adulthood o Even the highest functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder typically have problems with social interactions and communications and have restricted interests and activities Lack of responsiveness and social reciprocity Language and communication problems take various forms o Echolalia the exact echoing of phrases spoken by others DSM 5 determined that Asperger s disorder is not a disorder in itself a form of autism spectrum disorder triad of impairment o Problem with language lack of imagination doesn t care about social relationships Lifelong condition with no cure Stereotypies repetitive behavior by people with autism o Stimming o Way to manage when things are too stimulating self soothing Thought to be trying to control sensory input and ignore the other sensory input that is too much for them o Hand flapping clapping rocking shaking of the head covering ears Early intervention diagnose kids early 18 months get them into behavioral therapy for 5 6 days 8 12 hours a day o Need to have a variety of reinforcers for children when in therapy can t use only one o Ex spontaneous natural eye contact when observed immediately reinforce it so they child continues to do it Intellectual Developmental Disorder Must be observed in childhood to ever be diagnosed before 18 must be documented history of symptoms When they display a general intellectual functioning that is well below average in combination with poor adaptive behavior


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