UMass Amherst PSYCH 380 - Psych 380 Exam 1 Study Guide (5 pages)

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Psych 380 Exam 1 Study Guide



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Psych 380 Exam 1 Study Guide

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Pages:
5
School:
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Course:
Psych 380 - Abnormal Psychology
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Psych 380 Exam 1 Study Guide Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns of functioning Mental disorder is a mental or bodily condition marked primarily by sufficient disorganization of personality mind and emotions to seriously impair the normal psychological functioning of the individual Four D s o Deviance from behavior thoughts and emotions that differ largely from a society s ideas about proper functioning from social norms judgements of abnormality vary from society to society as norms grow from a particular culture also depend on specific circumstances Ex marathon runners difference between loving to run vs wanting to lose weight trying to fit an ideal o Distress according to many clinical theorists behavior ideas or emotions usually have to cause distress before they can be labeled abnormal Ex man is miserable finds it painful to go to work feels empty no joy this is showing distress Ex man has never experienced happiness but is okay with it this isn t getting in the way of his life he has a good job has a few relationships enjoys working is okay with his life NO distress o Dysfunction abnormal behavior tends to be dysfunctional it interferes with daily functioning culture plays a role o Danger abnormal behavior may come dangerous to oneself or others Ex man who has never been happy shows no danger to himself or anyone else Ex man who is distressed about never being happy shows some suicidal thoughts he is a danger to himself Treatment or therapy is a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior to more normal behavior treatment is anything put in place to help this person with this condition 3 essential features of all forms of therapy o 1 Patient who seeks help o 2 Trained healer o 3 Series of contacts between patient and healer through which the healer tries to produce certain changes in the patient s emotional state attitudes and behavior Clinical treatment is surrounded by conflict and confusion o Lack of agreement about goals or aims o Lack of agreement about successful outcomes o Lack of agreement about failure o Are clinicians seeking to cure To teach o Are sufferers patients ill or client having difficulty Now psychiatric conditions are more openly talked about due to the internet hundreds of psychologists in Amherst MA Large majority of treatment is on an outpatient basis no hospitalization institutionalization but in a clinic therapy office etc More severe psychological disturbances are treated inpatient hospitalization institutionalization Positive psychology is the study and enhancement of positive feelings traits and abilities Multicultural psychology is the field that examines the impact of culture race ethnicity and gender on behaviors and thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin nature and treatment of abnormal behavior Multicultural psychologists seek to understand how race culture ethnicity gender etc affect behavior and thought and how people of different cultures races and genders may differ psychologically Research is the systematic search for facts through the use of careful observations and investigations it is the key to accuracy in all fields but is particularly important in the field of abnormal psychology Clinical researchers face many challenges o Measuring unconscious motives o Assessing private thoughts o Monitoring mood changes o Calculating human potential 4 approaches to methods of research o The case study Provides a lot of details about rare disorders and cases answers questions such as what contributed to this and what treatments were effective problem is that we don t know if its generalizable or not will apply to a larger population o Correlational methods Is there a relationship between two variables that we are concerned about Allow you to answer some questions that people are genuinely interested in also takes some ethical problems out because you are just looking at the world looking at the strength of the relationship to the perfect relationship 1 1 correlation is not causation Positive correlation is an increase in one leads to an increase in another Negative correlation is an increase in one leads to a decrease in the other No correlation ex depression and IQ do not effect each other no slope o Experimental method Gives definitive evidence for causation a research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the manipulations effect on another variable is observed indep variable is the one you re interested in dep variable is the consistent one Random assignment make sure the researcher and the participants are blind double blind research study Control group is one not affected at all to make a baseline for the experiment o Alternative experimental designs Quasi experimental design does not have random assignment but make use of groups that already exist ex abused children Natural experiments nature manipulates the indep variable and the experimenter observes the effects ex psych impact of flooding Analogue experiments might use animal models of human behavior comes with ethical challenges treating animals humanely ex looking at dogs and their signs of symptoms Single subject experiments an outgrowth of case studies establish the baseline of anxiety and introduce CBT for a few weeks then switch back to treatment as usual and see the effects on their anxiety levels ex ABAB treatment Main difference between single subject and case study is that during a case study you are observing the participant and taking in info In the single subject you are purposefully switching the variables and observing changes Biological model adopts a medical perspective main focus is that a psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of the organism typically point to problems in brain anatomy or brain chemistry o Treatments are medicines drugs most popular ECT used primarily for depression psychosurgery removing parts of the brain o Weaknesses are it simplifies everything we do to a biological cause Psychodynamic model is the oldest and most famous psychological model based on a belief that a person s behavior is determined largely by the dynamic interaction of psych forces regardless of whether person is aware or not o Shaped by unconscious forces the id ego superego Id guided by the pleasure principle very basic instincts Ego shaped by reality principle seeks gratification but guides us to


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