UA FSHD 323 - FSHD 323 exam 4 notes (8 pages)

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FSHD 323 exam 4 notes



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FSHD 323 exam 4 notes

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Pages:
8
School:
University of Arizona
Course:
Fshd 323 - Infancy/Child Development
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FSHD 323 10 26 10 31 FSHD 323 EXAM 4 NOTES Language Development Key Terms Phonology o speech sounds of a language Phoneme o smallest distinct sound in a particular language that signals differences between words Semantics o word meanings and combinations Morpheme o smallest unit in a language that has meaning Syntax o grammatical rules of a language Pragmatics o rules that guide how we use language in social situations Language acquisition o learning native language Nativism o human brains are innately wired to learn language and hearing spoken languages triggers activation of a universal grammar Universal grammar o innate rules for grammar that apply to all languages Overregularization o mistaken application of a language rule to words that don t follow that rule or pattern applying rules where they shouldn t be applied example sticked receptive language o ability to understand words or language expressive language o ability to use written or spoken language we use to convey our thoughts emotions or needs Sensitive period critical period for language development acquisition o infancy puberty o if you learn a second language in early childhood process both language in the same area of the brain o if you learn later in life than you process languages in different parts of brain child directed speech o motherese speech that is tailored to fit the sensory and cognitive capabilities of infants and children so that it holds their attention simplified speech made up of short sentences with highpitched exaggerated intonation sing song rhythm distinct pauses clear gestures repetitive ends in a rising tone joint attention o child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver o May be combined with pointing by either partner o Dynamic consistent back and forth with parent related to better language development Whole object bias o word describes entire object not a small portion FSHD 323 10 26 10 31 Behaviorism Social Cognitive Learning Theory In general language acquisition is guided by behaviorist principles imitation reinforcement generalization and is a product of environmental influences especially modeling o Children imitate language of more experienced speakers o Parents selectively reinforce attempts at language use in a progression from babbling to word usage o Language acquisition learning native language Limitations of the Behaviorism Social Cognitive Learning Theory Language is really complicated Parents do very little direct teaching and are more likely to respond to meaning than grammar Universal aspects of language development We create novel sentences all the time it is hard to explain that novelty to people Language is inherently creative Strengths of the Behaviorism Social Cognitive Learning Theory Useful approach to treating children with language disorders Useful approach to school based learning instruction Can apply to formal learning of a second language Nativism Human brains are innately wired to learn language and hearing spoken languages triggers activation of a universal grammar o Children are biologically pre wired to acquire language Chomsky s Language Acquisition Device LAD mental structure in brain that incorporates an innate concept of language o Once children have sufficient vocabulary they can combine words into grammatically consistent novel utterances and understand sentences o Universal grammar innate rules for grammar that apply to all languages o Not actual brain structure Sensitive period critical period for language development acquisition infancy puberty o if you learn a second language in early childhood process both language in the same area of the brain o if you learn later in life than you process languages in different parts of brain Strengths of Nativism Universal features and principles of all languages sub verb obj Universal language features until 5 to 6 months infants hear all language phonemes language is an abstract set of rules that can t be acquired by learning theory principles Universal early language development phases language is too complicated to be explained by reinforcement alone especially given the pace of development in the early years explains common mistakes o over regularization mistaken application of a language rule to words that don t follow that rule or pattern applying rules where they shouldn t be applied example sticked FSHD 323 10 26 10 31 Limitations of Nativism fails to account for the diversity of languages around the world can the pre wiring be flexible and general enough lack of agreement on scope of universal rules language acquisition is a more gradual process than this perspective implies grammatical rules are applied inconsistently fails to explain cultural diversity in the development of pragmatics how language is used Interactionism Children s biological readiness to learn language interacts with experiences with language in the environment to bring about language development o bi directional interplay of biological and environmental factors o child is an active constructor of language o language learning takes place in natural settings through social interactions children love faces the triangle the eyes and the mouth Language Acquisition Support System LASS collection of strategies and tactics that environmental influences initially parents provide the child 1 Parents 2 Children are ready to take advantage of these environmental opportunities Facilitating Language Development adults adjust according to the child s ability but there are no universal characteristics of parental language interactions as the consistency may be more important than the actual content o non verbal games o child directed speech motherese speech that is tailored to fit the sensory and cognitive capabilities of infants and children so that it holds their attention simplified speech made up of short sentences with high pitched exaggerated intonation sing song rhythm distinct pauses clear gestures repetitive ends in a rising tone Cognitive Processing Theory cognitive processing theory language is a process of data crunching in which the actual process of learning words and their meanings relies on the computational ability of the brain o social interaction isn t enough to explain language development o language is Constantly taking in language quantity of language predicts vocabulary development Categorical speech perception ability to pick out words from streams of speech Pre Linguistic Development Across all phases of


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