UNCW PSY 256 - Final Exam Study Guide (16 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Study Guide for final exam in psy 256

Study Guide
University of North Carolina at Wilmington
Psy 256 - Brain and Behavior
Brain and Behavior Documents
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PSY 256 1st Edition Exam 4 Final Exam PSY 256 Lecture 5 18 15 Chapter 1 all but especially pages 6 9 historical men 12 13 Chapter 2 pages 21 22 parts components of cell Chapter 3 page 49 51 figure 3 10 Sulcus wrinkles in brain indentation Measuring intelligence in the brain Einstein s brain longer curve in visual spatial processing same number of neurons 10x more glia 100 billion neurons Glial cells Greek for glue not like nerve cells nerve cells release chemicals and have electric potential no axon Corpus callosum connects left and right hemisphere of brain Information from the brain You cannot determine much from looking at past brain Chromosomes could be used to determine gender of a brain Sexual orientation Neuro anatomist from the 1970s Simon LeVay Found that straight men have more cells in sexually dimorphic nucleus than females gay men have same number of cells than women fewer than normal published in 1972 Possibility of a biological basis regarding homosexuality Experience could also change brain may not be from birth Surrounding pituitary is hypothalamus Sexually dimorphic nucleus in all mammals males have more cells in sexually dimorphic nucleus than females Study with rats Lecture 5 19 15 For Wednesday Read pages 53 54 66 24 29 Historical thoughts Church doctrine stated that the difference between humans and animals is the presence of free will soul spirit in humans whereas animal behavior relies on reflexes humans do posses reflexes as well but animals do NOT have free will Free will does not have physical basis do we choose to do things or is it a matter of reflex Descartes thought that the pineal gland was related to our soul Dualism Components of a nerve cell Neuron refers to one single cell Nerve single neuron OR a bundle of neurons Many different shapes of a neuron Classic shape is a multipolar cell like image in book page 22 Bipolar PRIMARILY IN EYE 2 extensions coming off of cell body and unipolar SPINAL CORD one cell body neurons also exist Multipolar cell Cell body Soma Perikaryon contains nucleus DNA etc Dendrites info comes in through dendrites through cell body transmitted through axon Dendritic spine represents contact from another cell information Axons insulated with myelin sheath grey chunks In between the chunks of myelin called Node of Ranvier spaces between myelin At terminal buttons chemicals released onto next set of dendrites Myelin sheath is produced by particular kind of glial cell Glial cells support cells Oligodendroglia Schwann cell Astrocyte Microglia Oligodendroglia and Schwann cells produce myelin Myelin in CNS comes from oligodendroglia consists of brain and spinal cord Schwann cells produce myelin in peripheral nervous system Can recover from damage better in the PNS and the CNS damage to finger vs spine Astrocyte does not produce myelin Figure 2 6 in textbook When born can either become good protector exercise or bad cause inflammation fat obesity Four primary lobes of the cortex Occipital frontal parietal temporal Wrinkle in brain Sulcus Deep sulcus Fissure Sylvion Fissure runs horizontal Central Fissure Fissure of Rolando over top of brain Neuraxis imaginary line running through center of spinal cord and up through brain Dorsal back Ventral belly Rostral anterior toward the front Caudal posterior toward the rear Lateral away from midline Medial toward the midline Examples Hand is lateral to elbow Elbow is medial to hand Elbow is lateral to shoulder Shoulder is medial to elbow Opposite side of body or brain Contralateral to each other on opposite sides Ex right hand is contralateral to left hand Same side of body Ipsilateral Ex right hand is ipsilateral to right foot Slicing the brain Slice loaf of bread into normal sandwich slices transverse coronal frontal section Slice down the middle hot dog slice sagittal section Slice hoagie MRI images horizontal section Figure 3 2 Nervous system 1 CNS a Brain and spinal cord 2 PNS a Somatic i Sensory systems 1 Eyes touch ii Skeletal muscles b Autonomic i Goes through glands organs heart muscle smooth muscle found in digestive tract uterus iris of eye arteries veins ii Parasympathetic iii Sympathetic Smooth muscle in arteries Squeeze high blood pressure Relax low blood pressure Blood pressure is not conscious Metabolic chamber used to see if individuals could truly voluntarily regulate their own blood pressure body temperature heart rate metabolism etc Found that they could when put themselves in meditative state Neil MillerBiofeedback behavioral medicine Review Page 51 Sections of the brain 1 Transverse Frontal Coronal Cross section butterfly symmetrical view most common sandwich cut 2 Sagittal section cut like hot dog 2nd most common if cut off midline parasagittal 3 Horizontal cut parallel to the floor like sub Nervous System 1 Central Nervous System a Refers only to brain and spinal cord 2 Peripheral Nervous System a All nerves that leave brain spinal cord and go back to brain spinal cord input or output to CNS b Divided into somatic division and autonomic division i Somatic 1 Consists of nerves that control skeleton muscles and nerves that come back from sensory organs eye ear etc 2 Conscious we are aware of what goes on in peripheral somatic nervous system ii Autonomic 1 Goes to glands organs heart muscle and smooth muscle 2 Unconscious We are unaware can t control 3 Divided into 2 parts a Parasympathetic i Resting digesting food not stressed b Sympathetic i Fight or flight active when stressed active when burning energy emergency system ii Long term activation of sympathetic nervous system military volcano epidemics shootings etc leads to PTSD post traumatic stress disorder 1 Leads to many behavioral and psychological problems sleep problems self medicating alcohol drugs Smooth muscle found in stomach intestines sphincter arteries Controls blood pressure CNS Myelin sheath is produced by Oligodedroglia cell PNS Myelin sheath is produced by Schwann cell Why can Monks control temperature metabolism heart rate blood pressure and we cannot Neil Miller says we can t control things like blood pressure because we don t know where it is biofeedback if people know where things are taking place they may be able to control them Behavioral Medicine Teaching behavior that helps your biology Page 72 Red lines Neurons that part of sympathetic nervous system Blue lines Leave brain and go to organs If they go to the same organ why do they have different actions Two neurons Target organs get different

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