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UNCW PSY 256 - Final Exam Study Guide

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PSY 256 1st EditionExam # 4 Final ExamPSY 256Lecture: 5/18/15Chapter 1 (all but especially pages 6-9(historical men), 12-13)Chapter 2 (pages 21-22)- parts/components of cell Chapter 3 (page 49-51), figure 3.10*Sulcus- wrinkles in brain, indentation Measuring intelligence in the brainEinstein’s brain- longer curve in visual/spatial processing, same number of neurons, 10x more glia100 billion neuronsGlial cells (Greek for “glue”)- not like nerve cells (nerve cells release chemicals and have electric potential), no axon, Corpus callosum- connects left and right hemisphere of brainInformation from the brain-You cannot determine much from looking at past brain-Chromosomes could be used to determine gender of a brain-Sexual orientation?Neuro-anatomist from the 1970s- Simon LeVay-Found that straight men have more cells in sexually dimorphic nucleus than females, gay men have same number of cells than women (fewer than normal)- published in 1972-Possibility of a biological basis regarding homosexuality-Experience could also change brain (may not be from birth)Surrounding pituitary is hypothalamusSexually dimorphic nucleus- in all mammals, males have more cells in sexually dimorphic nucleus than femalesStudy with ratsLecture: 5/19/15For Wednesday…Read pages 53-54, 66, 24-29Historical thoughts-Church doctrine stated that the difference between humans and animals is the presence of free will/soul/spirit in humans whereas animal behavior relies on reflexes (humans do posses reflexes as well but animals do NOT have free will)-Free will- does not have physical basis, do we choose to do things or is it a matter of reflex?-Descartes thought that the pineal gland was related to our soul-Dualism*Components of a nerve cellNeuron- refers to one single cellNerve- single neuron OR a bundle of neuronsMany different shapes of a neuron-Classic shape is a multipolar cell (like image in book, page 22)-Bipolar (PRIMARILY IN EYE…2 extensions coming off of cell body) and unipolar (SPINAL CORD…one cell body) neurons also existMultipolar cell-Cell body=Soma=Perikaryoncontains nucleus, DNA, etc.-Dendrites- info comes in through dendrites, through cell body, transmitted through axon-Dendritic spine- represents contact from another cell (information)-Axons insulated with myelin sheath (grey chunks)-In between the chunks of myelin- called Node of Ranvier (spaces between myelin)-At terminal buttons, chemicals released onto next set of dendrites-Myelin sheath is produced by particular kind of glial cellGlial cells- support cells-Oligodendroglia-Schwann cell-Astrocyte -MicrogliaOligodendroglia and Schwann cells produce myelin-Myelin in CNS comes from oligodendroglia (consists of brain and spinal cord)-Schwann cells produce myelin in peripheral nervous system*Can recover from damage better in the PNS and the CNS (damage to finger vs. spine)Astrocyte- does not produce myelin-Figure 2.6 in textbook***-When born, can either become good/protector (exercise) or bad/cause inflammation (fat/obesity) Four primary lobes of the cortex (Occipital, frontal, parietal, temporal)Wrinkle in brain=SulcusDeep sulcus- Fissure Sylvion Fissure- runs horizontal Central Fissure/Fissure of Rolando-over top of brainNeuraxis- imaginary line running through center of spinal cord and up through brain Dorsal- back Ventral- bellyRostral/anterior- toward the frontCaudal/posterior- toward the rearLateral-away from midlineMedial- toward the midline Examples:Hand is lateral to elbowElbow is medial to handElbow is lateral to shoulderShoulder is medial to elbowOpposite side of body or brain- Contralateral to each other (on opposite sides)Ex: right hand is contralateral to left handSame side of body- Ipsilateral Ex: right hand is ipsilateral to right footSlicing the brain-Slice loaf of bread into normal sandwich slices- transverse/coronal/frontal section-Slice down the middle (hot dog slice)- sagittal section -Slice (hoagie), MRI images- horizontal section Figure 3.2** Nervous system1. CNSa. Brain and spinal cord2. PNSa. Somatici. Sensory systems1. Eyes, touchii. Skeletal musclesb. Autonomic i. Goes through glands, organs, heart muscle, smooth muscle (found in digestive tract, uterus, iris of eye, arteries, veins)ii. Parasympatheticiii. Sympathetic Smooth muscle in arteries… Squeeze- high blood pressureRelax- low blood pressureBlood pressure is not conscious Metabolic chamber used to see if individuals could truly voluntarily regulate their own blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, metabolism, etc. -Found that they could when put themselves in meditative stateNeil Miller- Biofeedback, behavioral medicineReview[Page 51]Sections of the brain1. Transverse/Frontal/Coronal/Cross-section- butterfly/symmetrical view, most common- sandwich cut2. Sagittal section- cut like hot dog, 2nd most common (if cut off midline, parasagittal)3. Horizontal- cut parallel to the floor, like subNervous System1. Central Nervous System a. Refers only to brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System a. All nerves that leave brain/spinal cord and go back to brain/spinal cord (input or output to CNS)b. Divided into somatic division and autonomic divisioni. Somatic1. Consists of nerves that control skeleton muscles and nerves that come back from sensory organs (eye, ear, etc.)2. Conscious (we are aware of what goes on in peripheral, somatic nervoussystem)ii. Autonomic1. Goes to glands, organs, heart muscle, and smooth muscle2. Unconscious- We are unaware/can’t control 3. Divided into 2 partsa. Parasympathetici. Resting, digesting food, not stressedb. Sympathetici. Fight or flight, active when stressed, active when burning energy, emergency system ii. Long term activation of sympathetic nervous system (military, volcano, epidemics, shootings, etc.) leads to PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder)1. Leads to many behavioral and psychological problems (sleep problems, self-medicating, alcohol, drugs)Smooth muscle found in stomach/intestines, sphincter, arteries Controls blood pressureCNS- Myelin sheath is produced by Oligodedroglia cell PNS- Myelin sheath is produced by Schwann cell Why can Monks control temperature, metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure and we cannot?Neil Miller- says we can’t control things like blood pressure because we don’t know where it is biofeedback (if people know where things are taking place, they may be able to control them)Behavioral Medicine-Teaching behavior that helps your biology[Page 72]Red lines- Neurons


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