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UNCW PSY 256 - Exam 3 Study Guide

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PSY 256 1st EditionExam # 3 Study Guide Chapters 8-11Chapter 8: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (page 252)1) What are the diagnostic criteria for ADHD including specifiers?a. A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development, as characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Children with significant attention problems show persistent and developmentally unexpecteddifficulties with attention to detail, sustaining attention over time, listening to others and following through with assignments, organizing tasks, staying focused, and remembering information and where they placed objects. Children who have significant hyperactivity fidget and squirm, have difficulty remaining seated and staying still when expected, show problems playing quietly, are talkative, and “on the go.” Must show at least six out of nine symptoms of either inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity to be diagnosed. (table 8.1 on page 253)2) Describe youth who show sluggish cognitive tempo. (page 257)a. “restrictive inattentive presentation”, A subject of children with predominately inattentive presentation show few or no symptoms of hyperactivity or impulsivity. They often daydream,appear drowsy, and act confused. Described as lethargic, hypoactive, or passive. In school they appear spacey or disoriented, and if their minds are constantly wandering from topic to topic. (Forgetful, daydreams, sluggish, drowsy, confused, “in a fog”, stares into space, overtired, underactive, lack of energy) 3) What are the common co-morbid disorders with ADHD? (page 259)a. 44% of children with ADHD had at least one other psychiatric disorder, 32% had two others, and 11% had 3 others. Conduct problems (54 to 67 percent show ODD, 30-56 percent show CD, 18-24 percent develop APD), substance use problems (children with ADHD are 6x more likely to abuse nicotine, alcohol, or other drugs during adolescence, 22 percent of adolescentswith ADHD have at least one substance use disorder, higher rates for girls than boys), anxietyand mood disorders (25 percent of children and adolescents with ADHD have at least one anxiety disorder while 20-30 percent experience depression)4) Describe the prevalence of ADHD. Among whom it highest? (page 262)a. Approximately 3 to 7 percent of children in the general population currently meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Higher among school age children compared to preschoolers, adolescents,and adults. Prevalence has increased dramatically over past 30 years, today 9 percent of children have been diagnosed with ADHD at some point in time. More common in boys than girls (10:1)5) According to Olfson and colleagues (2003), what are the reasons for the increased prevalence of ADHD? (page 262)a. Four explanations for the increase in prevalence of ADHD. (a) The IDEA act (fed law that addresses the education of children with disabilities, began recognizing ADHD as a potential disability in 1990. (b) number of school based health clinics increased during this time periodgiving low income children greater access to mental health services, (c) 1990s witnessed advances in assessment of ADHD leading to better ID of children with the disorder, (d) general increase in the public awareness of the disorder and a decrease in stigma (organizations such as CHADD and ADDA advocated for the rights of individuals withADHD and their families. 6) In DSM-IV, children with ADHD were classified into one of three subtypes, based on their symptom presentation. In contrast, in DSM-5 does not use subtypes; instead children with ADHD are described in terms of their predominant symptom presentation. Why did the creators of DSM-5 make this change?7) ADHD is most closely associated with genes that regulate? (page 265)a. Genes associated with the dopamine neurotransmitter system probably play a primary role in the development of ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic basis. Genes may explain as much as 80 percent of the variance in ADHD symptoms among children. 8) According to Gray's neurological systems theory, children with ADHD show what changes in BIS and BAS? (page 268)a. Gray hypothesized the existence of two neuropsychological systems that govern overt behavior. BIS (behavioral inhibition system) is responsible for slowing or stopping behavior in a response to punishment or lack of reinforcement. BAS (behavioral activation system) is responsible for adjusting behavior to achieve reinforcement. 9) What are the components of Barkely's neurodevelopmental model for ADHD? (page 269)a. Problems in neural development caused primarily by genetic and early biological risks lead toproblems with behavior later in life. 4 basic executive functionsworking memory, internalized speech, emotion regulation, and creative problem solving. 10) Describe what can happen to ADHD in college students and other adults.11) Psychostimulant medications, used to treat ADHD, primarily impact what area(s) of the brain? (page 271)a. Psychostimulants are the most commonly prescribed medications for ADHD. These medications affect the narrow transmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. They cause increased attention and behavioral intervention.12) What are considered limitations of the use of stimulant medication to treat ADHD in school age children?13) What are key difference between clinical behavior therapy and direct contingency management to treat ADHD? (page 276)14) Describe the results of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD. (page 279)15) What was the main finding of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS)? (page 273)a. 3.5 to five-year-old children with ADHD randomly assigned to receive various doses of immediate-release medicine or placebo for eight weeks. Results showed significant improvement in ADHD for children in the medication conditions, except those taking the lowest dose. Chapter 9: Conduct Problems in Children1) What are the diagnostic features of ODD? (page 288)a. Two disorders describe children and adolescents with conduct problems, oppositional defiant disorder or and conduct disorder. Children with ODD show at least four symptoms of noncompliant and defiant behavior toward adults that fall into three groups including angry and irritable mood, argumentative for defiant behavior, or vindictiveness2) What are the diagnostic features of CD? (page 291 and table 9.2 on page 292)a. Conduct disorder is


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