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UNCW PSY 256 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSY 256 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: Chapter 1-4Lecture: 1/13Chapter 1 -Central Nervous system - only brain and spine (Peripheral is everything else)-Brian attached to bottom is brain stem cerabelum attached to brain stem (motor system)3 major divisions of the brain 1. forebrain 2. midbrain3. hindbrain (brainstem) -cortex means bark, the pink outside PAGE 61: 4 lobes - temporal (bottom front), frontal (top front), visual or occipital (bottom back)and parietal (top back) -Ridges in between the fold- Gyrus -Hippocampus (memory) means seahorse often times parts were named after things they lookedlike -Amygdala means almond PAGE 20: Soma is the same as cell body (cell body ------> axon)-Dendrites look like branches coming out of the cell body Electric spark - action potential which happens between the gaps on the axon - gaps known as nodes of RANVIERno other cell in the body communicate like this comes into the cell body then through the axon and out the terminal buttons - knobs at end also known as synaptic knobneurons can be as long as 6ft tall PAGE 50: imaginary line from bottom to top of a person - neuraxisbottom - posterior top - Rostral or anterior away - lateral (ex: my hand is lateral from my elbow)closer - medial side top - dorsal side bottom - ventral Ipsilateral same - side (ex: right arm is ipsilateral to right leg)contralateral - opposite side  Camillo Golgi (1843-1926)Golgi-stain – silver chromate that stains cell body and processesNeurons are continuous – fused together Santiago Ramón Cajal (1852-1934)Neurons are independent units-(Page 5): read and study the section called “the nature of behavioral neuroscience Know the names of historical people who laid the foundations and know their contributions - Hippocrates- thought that the brain was the seat of thought- Aristotle- thought that the brain cooled the passions of the heart- Galen- went back to the notion that the brain is the center of thinking...he also dissected the brain) - Descartes- (be sure to read this section about Dualism...it is important because it has to do with freewill among other things) - Galvani- found that electrical stimulation of a frog muscle made it twitch- Muller- (be sure to know about his contributions, including the doctrine of specific nerveenergies- Pierre Flourens- made small ablations in animal brains and noticed the effect) - Fritsch and Hitzig- found that stimulation of motor cortex made the opposite leg move in dogs)- Von Helmholtz- made a lot of contributions including measuring the speed of conductionin a nerve, and a theory of color vision - Read the section on Darwin **Read the section on “Careers in Neuroscience” And “Strategies for learning” **Read the Epilogue about how computers and brains are alike and dissimilar Lecture: 1.15What’s the difference between a cell and a neuron?CellNucleusMitochondria- powerhouse of the cellRibosomes- transcription of DNA and RNA (genetic material)Golgi Apparatus- packaging proteinEndoplasmic ReticulumCell wall- dendrites are parts of cell wall that accept neurotransmittersOpening that allows movementAxon stems off of cell-White matter covers it-Myelin sheath- every so often there are spaces where myelin is not present (called “Ranvier”)-At the end of the axon is the axon terminal-Inside the axon terminal are synaptic vesicles which contain neurotransmitters (where a lot of the action occurs)-Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse -SynapseIons on either side of the cell wall (Sodium on the outside, Potassium on the inside)-When things are calm, it is called resting potential (-70mV)- nothing is happening-Action Potential (all or none situation... can’t have a partial action)-Refractory period- nothing can happen (resting period) -Cocaine overdose causes cell to die because there’s no refractory period (no time for cellto rest)Inhibitory or excitatory (plus or minus)Mudpuppies and squids are easy to study because they have very large neuronsMaladaptive behavior due to cells not engaging in purposeful behavior (not valuable for one to hear voices)Disruptive behavior is a bad pattern of firings in the wrong locationsHumans have millions of neuronsNerve cells: know the material on pages 21-25Three main types of neurons (page 22)1) Multipolar (many stalks leaving cell body)2) Bipolar (two stalks leaving cell body)3) Unipolar (Cell body attached to long axon) -Overview of synaptic connections between neurons (page 23)-Supporting cells (Glial cell) page 24-26 Two classes of Glia produce fatty Meylin sheath around axons (Page 26):-Figure 2.7 A= Oligodendro glia cells in the central nervous system-Figure 2.8 Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system -Blood brain barrier (Pages 27-28)Lecture: 1.20[Page 51]Sections of the brain1. Transverse/Frontal/Coronal/Cross-section- butterfly/symmetrical view, most common- sandwich cut2. Sagittal section- cut like hot dog, 2nd most common (if cut off midline, parasagittal)3. Horizontal- cut parallel to the floor, like subNervous System1. Central Nervous System a. Refers only to brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System a. All nerves that leave brain/spinal cord and go back to brain/spinal cord (input or output to CNS)b. Divided into somatic division and autonomic divisioni. Somatic1. Consists of nerves that control skeleton muscles and nerves that come back from sensory organs (eye, ear, etc.)2. Conscious (we are aware of what goes on in peripheral, somatic nervous system)ii. Autonomic1. Goes to glands, organs, heart muscle, and smooth muscle2. Unconscious- We are unaware/can’t control 3. Divided into 2 partsa. Parasympathetici. Resting, digesting food, not stressedb. Sympathetici. Fight or flight, active when stressed, active when burning energy, emergency system ii. Long term activation of sympathetic nervous system(military, volcano, epidemics, shootings, etc.) leads to PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder)1. Leads to many behavioral and psychologicalproblems (sleep problems, self-medicating, alcohol, drugs)Smooth muscle found in stomach/intestines, sphincter, arteries Controls blood pressureCNS- Myelin sheath is produced by Oligodedroglia cell PNS- Myelin sheath is produced by Schwann cell Why can Monks control temperature, metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure and we cannot?Neil Miller- says we can’t control things like blood pressure because we don’t know where it is biofeedback (if people know where things are taking place,


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