UNCW PSY 256 - Exam 1 Study Guide (16 pages)

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Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide


Study Guide for PSY 256 Exam 1

Study Guide
University of North Carolina at Wilmington
Psy 256 - Brain and Behavior
Brain and Behavior Documents
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PSY 256 1st Edition Exam 1 Study Guide Lectures Chapter 1 4 Lecture 1 13 Chapter 1 Central Nervous system only brain and spine Peripheral is everything else Brian attached to bottom is brain stem cerabelum attached to brain stem motor system 3 major divisions of the brain 1 forebrain 2 midbrain 3 hindbrain brainstem cortex means bark the pink outside PAGE 61 4 lobes temporal bottom front frontal top front visual or occipital bottom back and parietal top back Ridges in between the fold Gyrus Hippocampus memory means seahorse often times parts were named after things they looked like Amygdala means almond PAGE 20 Soma is the same as cell body cell body axon Dendrites look like branches coming out of the cell body Electric spark action potential which happens between the gaps on the axon gaps known as nodes of RANVIER no other cell in the body communicate like this comes into the cell body then through the axon and out the terminal buttons knobs at end also known as synaptic knob neurons can be as long as 6ft tall PAGE 50 imaginary line from bottom to top of a person neuraxis bottom posterior top Rostral or anterior away lateral ex my hand is lateral from my elbow closer medial side top dorsal side bottom ventral Ipsilateral same side ex right arm is ipsilateral to right leg contralateral opposite side Camillo Golgi 1843 1926 Golgi stain silver chromate that stains cell body and processes Neurons are continuous fused together Santiago Ram n Cajal 1852 1934 Neurons are independent units Page 5 read and study the section called the nature of behavioral neuroscience Know the names of historical people who laid the foundations and know their contributions Hippocrates thought that the brain was the seat of thought Aristotle thought that the brain cooled the passions of the heart Galen went back to the notion that the brain is the center of thinking he also dissected the brain Descartes be sure to read this section about Dualism it is important because it has to do with freewill among other things Galvani found that electrical stimulation of a frog muscle made it twitch Muller be sure to know about his contributions including the doctrine of specific nerve energies Pierre Flourens made small ablations in animal brains and noticed the effect Fritsch and Hitzig found that stimulation of motor cortex made the opposite leg move in dogs Von Helmholtz made a lot of contributions including measuring the speed of conduction in a nerve and a theory of color vision Read the section on Darwin Read the section on Careers in Neuroscience And Strategies for learning Read the Epilogue about how computers and brains are alike and dissimilar Lecture 1 15 What s the difference between a cell and a neuron Cell Nucleus Mitochondria powerhouse of the cell Ribosomes transcription of DNA and RNA genetic material Golgi Apparatus packaging protein Endoplasmic Reticulum Cell wall dendrites are parts of cell wall that accept neurotransmitters Opening that allows movement Axon stems off of cell White matter covers it Myelin sheath every so often there are spaces where myelin is not present called Ranvier At the end of the axon is the axon terminal Inside the axon terminal are synaptic vesicles which contain neurotransmitters where a lot of the action occurs Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse Synapse Ions on either side of the cell wall Sodium on the outside Potassium on the inside When things are calm it is called resting potential 70mV nothing is happening Action Potential all or none situation can t have a partial action Refractory period nothing can happen resting period Cocaine overdose causes cell to die because there s no refractory period no time for cell to rest Inhibitory or excitatory plus or minus Mudpuppies and squids are easy to study because they have very large neurons Maladaptive behavior due to cells not engaging in purposeful behavior not valuable for one to hear voices Disruptive behavior is a bad pattern of firings in the wrong locations Humans have millions of neurons Nerve cells know the material on pages 21 25 Three main types of neurons page 22 1 Multipolar many stalks leaving cell body 2 Bipolar two stalks leaving cell body 3 Unipolar Cell body attached to long axon Overview of synaptic connections between neurons page 23 Supporting cells Glial cell page 24 26 Two classes of Glia produce fatty Meylin sheath around axons Page 26 Figure 2 7 A Oligodendro glia cells in the central nervous system Figure 2 8 Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system Blood brain barrier Pages 27 28 Lecture 1 20 Page 51 Sections of the brain 1 Transverse Frontal Coronal Cross section butterfly symmetrical view most commonsandwich cut 2 Sagittal section cut like hot dog 2nd most common if cut off midline parasagittal 3 Horizontal cut parallel to the floor like sub Nervous System 1 Central Nervous System a Refers only to brain and spinal cord 2 Peripheral Nervous System a All nerves that leave brain spinal cord and go back to brain spinal cord input or output to CNS b Divided into somatic division and autonomic division i Somatic 1 Consists of nerves that control skeleton muscles and nerves that come back from sensory organs eye ear etc 2 Conscious we are aware of what goes on in peripheral somatic nervous system ii Autonomic 1 Goes to glands organs heart muscle and smooth muscle 2 Unconscious We are unaware can t control 3 Divided into 2 parts a Parasympathetic i Resting digesting food not stressed b Sympathetic i Fight or flight active when stressed active when burning energy emergency system ii Long term activation of sympathetic nervous system military volcano epidemics shootings etc leads to PTSD post traumatic stress disorder 1 Leads to many behavioral and psychological problems sleep problems self medicating alcohol drugs Smooth muscle found in stomach intestines sphincter arteries Controls blood pressure CNS Myelin sheath is produced by Oligodedroglia cell PNS Myelin sheath is produced by Schwann cell Why can Monks control temperature metabolism heart rate blood pressure and we cannot Neil Miller says we can t control things like blood pressure because we don t know where it is biofeedback if people know where things are taking place they may be able to control them Behavioral Medicine Teaching behavior that helps your biology Page 72 Red lines Neurons that part of sympathetic nervous system Blue lines Leave brain and go to organs If they go to the same organ why do they have different

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