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UNCW PSY 256 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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PSY 256 1st EditionExam # 2 Study Guide Chapter 4Chapter 4: Intellectual Disability (Starts on page 88)1) What does the term "diagnostic overshadowing" mean? (page 101)-Diagnostic overshadowing refers to the tendency of clinicians to attend to the features of ID rather than the symptoms of coexisting mental disorders.-The exact prevalence of psychiatric disorders among individuals with ID is unknown because their behavioral and emotional problems are often overlooked 2) What is the prevalence if ID? In what age group is it highest? (page 101)-Approximately 1.8% of individuals have ID (page 124)-Experts disagree about the prevalence of ID, estimated between 2.5 and 3 percent of general population have ID (others argue its lower—1.83%)-ID is determined by both IQ and impairment in adaptive functioning-ID is more frequently diagnosed among school-aged children and adolescents than among adults (cognitive impairments associated with ID are more noticeable when people are in school)-ID is more common in males than females (1:3:1)3) What IQ to children with ID typically earn? (page 103 and 89)-Children with organic Intellectual disability have IQ scores less than 50-An IQ below 70 can indicate significant deficits in intellectual functioning4) What is adaptive functioning? What are the domains? (page 90)-Refers to people’s typical level of success in meeting the day-to-day demands of society in an age-appropriate manner-Deficits in adaptive functioning result in failure to meet developmental and socio-cultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility.-The three domains of adaptive functioning are conceptual, social, and practical. (page 91)A. Conceptual skillsa. Understanding language, speaking, reading, writing, counting, telling time, solving math problems, the ability to learn and remember information and skillsB. Social skillsa. Interpersonal skills (making eye contact when addressing others), following rules (turn-taking during games), social problem-solving (avoiding arguments), understandothers (empathy), making and keeping friendsC. Practical skillsa. Activities of daily living including personal care (getting dressed, grooming), safety (looking both ways before crossing the street), home activities (using the phone), school/work skills (showing up on time), recreational activities (clubs, hobbies), and using money (paying for items in a store)5) What is a main difference between the DSM-5 conceptualization of Intellectual Disability and the AAIDD conceptualization of Intellectual Disability? (page 94)-The AAIDD emphasizes needed supports (a broad array of assistance that helps the individual function effectively in society) 6) Why might a child be diagnosed with Global Developmental Delay rather than Intellectual Disability? (page 95)-GDD is a neurodevelopmental disability that is only diagnosed in children less than 5 years of age. Itis diagnosed when a child fails to meet developmental milestones (physician or psychologist suspects ID, but its too early to diagnose because it is difficult to obtain an IQ score for young children)7) What is the similar structure hypothesis for ID? (page 103)-Suggested by Zigler that the cognitive structures of children with ID are similar to the cognitive structures of typically developing children, but at a slower pace. -Indicates that two children of the same mental age (one with ID and the other without ID) will show similar abilities8) What are the causes of Down syndrome? (page 104)-genetic disorder characterized by moderate to severe ID, problems with language and academic functioning, and characteristic physical features. (1/1000 live births)-about 95 percent of cases of Downs syndrome are caused by an extra 21st chromosome (called trisomy 21 because child shows 3 21st chromosomes rather than 2). This is NOT inherited, but rather due to a nondisjunction (failure of chromosome to separate during meiosis).-Can also occur in translocation (child inherits one chromosome 21 from each parent and an abnormally fused chromosome from one of the parents)-Also can occur when some cells fail to separate during mitosis (causes child to have some normal cells and some cells with an abnormal amount of genetic information (called chromosomal mosaicism) 9) What is Fragile X syndrome? What is a strength for children with Fragile X syndrome? (page 106)-An inherited genetic disorder that is associated with physical anomalies, moderate to severe intellectual impairment, and social/behavioral problems (occurs 1 in 1,500 births)-Caused by a mutation on the gene of the X chromosome (FMR1 gene)-Boys perform relatively well on tasks that require simultaneous processing (perceiving, organizing, and interpreting information all at once). 10) What are the facial characteristics associated with Down's syndrome? (page 105)-Children with Down’s Syndrome have characteristic facial features including flattened face, slanting eyes, wide nasal bridge, and low set ears. Other features include short stature and poor muscle tone (hypotonia). Palms show a single, large crease (simian crease)extending from thumb to palm.11) What is the cause of PKU? (page 110)-Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder that is caused by a recessive gene inherited from bothparents. Characterized by body’s inability to convert phenylaline (an essential amino acid found in certain foods) to paratyrosine. -To show PKU, child must inherit the gene from both mother and father.12) What are the characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome? (page 111)-caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Characterized by ID, hyperactivity, and slow physical growth as well as characteristic craniofacial anomalies and cardiac problems-Skin folds at the corner of the eye, low nasal bridge, short nose, indistinct phylum (groove between nose and upper lip), small head circumference, small eye opening, small midface, thin upper lip13) What is a low risk procedure mentioned in your test for screening of genetic disorders in utero? (page 114)-Serum testing: done at 15 to 18 weeks; “triple test” or “triple screen”: involves testing mother’s blood for three serum markers: alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, and human chorionic gonadotropin-Amniocentesis: more invasive screening technique that is conducted during weeks 15 to 20 gestation-Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)- genetic screening technique that can be done earlier (between 8 and 12 weeks gestation) 14)


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