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Final Exam Study Guide (16 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide


Study Guide for final exam in psy 256

Study Guide
University of North Carolina at Wilmington
Psy 256 - Brain and Behavior
Brain and Behavior Documents

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Exam # 4 Final Exam PSY 256 Lecture: 5/18/15 Chapter 1 (all but especially pages 6-9(historical men), 12-13) Chapter 2 (pages 21-22)- parts/components of cell Chapter 3 (page 49-51), figure 3.10* Sulcus- wrinkles in brain, indentation Measuring intelligence in the brain Einstein’s brain- longer curve in visual/spatial processing, same number of neurons, 10x more glia 100 billion neurons Glial cells (Greek for “glue”)- not like nerve cells (nerve cells release chemicals and have electric potential), no axon, Corpus callosum- connects left and right hemisphere of brain Information from the brain -You cannot determine much from looking at past brain -Chromosomes could be used to determine gender of a brain -Sexual orientation? Neuro-anatomist from the 1970s- Simon LeVay -Found that straight men have more cells in sexually dimorphic nucleus than females, gay men have same number of cells than women (fewer than normal)- published in 1972 -Possibility of a biological basis regarding homosexuality -Experience could also change brain (may not be from birth) Surrounding pituitary is hypothalamus Sexually dimorphic nucleus- in all mammals, males have more cells in sexually dimorphic nucleus than females Study with rats Lecture: 5/19/15 PSY 256 1st Edition For Wednesday… Read pages 53-54, 66, 24-29 Historical thoughts -Church doctrine stated that the difference between humans and animals is the presence of free will/soul/spirit in humans whereas animal behavior relies on reflexes (humans do posses reflexes as well but animals do NOT have free will) -Free will- does not have physical basis, do we choose to do things or is it a matter of reflex? -Descartes thought that the pineal gland was related to our soul -Dualism* Components of a nerve cell Neuron- refers to one single cell Nerve- single neuron OR a bundle of neurons Many different shapes of a neuron -Classic shape is a multipolar cell (like image in book, page 22) -Bipolar (PRIMARILY IN EYE…2 extensions coming off of cell body) and unipolar (SPINAL CORD…one cell body) neurons also exist Multipolar cell -Cell body=Soma=Perikaryoncontains nucleus, DNA, etc. -Dendrites- info comes in through dendrites, through cell body, transmitted through axon -Dendritic spine- represents contact from another cell (information) -Axons insulated with myelin sheath (grey chunks) -In between the chunks of myelin- called Node of Ranvier (spaces between myelin) -At terminal buttons, chemicals released onto next set of dendrites -Myelin sheath is produced by particular kind of glial cell Glial cells- support cells -Oligodendroglia -Schwann cell -Astrocyte -Microglia Oligodendroglia and Schwann cells produce myelin -Myelin in CNS comes from oligodendroglia (consists of brain and spinal cord) -Schwann cells produce myelin in peripheral nervous system *Can recover from damage better in the PNS and the CNS (damage to finger vs. spine) Astrocyte- does not produce myelin -Figure 2.6 in textbook*** -When born, can either become good/protector (exercise) or bad/cause inflammation (fat/obesity) Four primary lobes of the cortex (Occipital, frontal, parietal, temporal) Wrinkle in brain=Sulcus Deep sulcus- Fissure Sylvion Fissure- runs horizontal Central Fissure/Fissure of Rolando-over top of brain Neuraxis- imaginary line running through center of spinal cord and ...

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