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Exam 2 Study Guide (10 pages)

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Exam 2 Study Guide


Study Guide for Chapters 4 through 7

Study Guide
University of North Carolina at Wilmington
Psy 256 - Brain and Behavior
Brain and Behavior Documents

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Exam # 1 Study Guide Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Intellectual Disability (Starts on page 88) 1) What does the term "diagnostic overshadowing" mean? (page 101) -Diagnostic overshadowing refers to the tendency of clinicians to attend to the features of ID rather than the symptoms of coexisting mental disorders. -The exact prevalence of psychiatric disorders among individuals with ID is unknown because their behavioral and emotional problems are often overlooked 2) What is the prevalence if ID? In what age group is it highest? (page 101) -Approximately 1.8% of individuals have ID (page 124) -Experts disagree about the prevalence of ID, estimated between 2.5 and 3 percent of general population have ID (others argue its lower—1.83%) -ID is determined by both IQ and impairment in adaptive functioning -ID is more frequently diagnosed among school-aged children and adolescents than among adults (cognitive impairments associated with ID are more noticeable when people are in school) -ID is more common in males than females (1:3:1) 3) What IQ to children with ID typically earn? (page 103 and 89) -Children with organic Intellectual disability have IQ scores less than 50 -An IQ below 70 can indicate significant deficits in intellectual functioning 4) What is adaptive functioning? What are the domains? (page 90) -Refers to people’s typical level of success in meeting the day-to-day demands of society in an age- appropriate manner -Deficits in adaptive functioning result in failure to meet developmental and socio-cultural standards for personal independence and social responsibility. -The three domains of adaptive functioning are conceptual, social, and practical. (page 91) A. Conceptual skills a. Understanding language, speaking, reading, writing, counting, telling time, solving math problems, the ability to learn and remember information and skills B. Social skills a. Interpersonal skills (making eye contact when addressing others), following rules (turn-taking during games), social problem-solving (avoiding arguments), understand others (empathy), making and keeping friends C. Practical skills a. Activities of daily living including personal care (getting dressed, grooming), safety (looking both ways before crossing the street), home activities (using the phone), school/work skills (showing up on time), recreational activities (clubs, hobbies), and using money (paying for items in a store) PSY 322 1st Edition 5) What is a main difference between the DSM-5 conceptualization of Intellectual Disability and the AAIDD conceptualization of Intellectual Disability? (page 94) -The AAIDD emphasizes needed supports (a broad array of assistance that helps the individual function effectively in society) 6) Why might a child be diagnosed with Global Developmental Delay rather than Intellectual Disability? (page 95) -GDD is a neurodevelopmental disability that is only diagnosed in children less than 5 years of age. It is diagnosed when a child fails to meet developmental milestones (physician or psychologist suspects ID, but its too early to diagnose because it is difficult to obtain an IQ score for young children) 7) What is the similar structure hypothesis for ID? (page 103) -Suggested by Zigler that the cognitive structures of children with ID are similar to the cognitive structures of typically developing children, ...

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