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BGSU PSYC 3070 - Human Sexuality

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PSYC 3070 1st EditionLecture 8PSYC 3070 Human Sexuality Spring 2015 semester notesImportant Concepts- Sexual Individuality: a person’s unique sexual personality, desires, and expressionsy- Holistic sexuality – the integration of body, mind, feelings, and social life through your sexuality- Having healthy relationships- Being able to express pleasure and love in relationships- Being able to prevent disease - Understanding how sexual diversity can enrich societyHistory of Sexual Science- Sexual Science: the study of sexual behaviors across the human species, all cultures andindividuals- Sexology: the systematic study of sexual interests, functions and behaviors. Began in the 19th century.- Early physicians encounterd individuals with abnormal sexual behaviors and this directed the focus of research in these fields toward unusual sexual behaviors- According to sexology: any sexual behavior that was not for reproductive purposes wasindicative of sexual degeneracy (impairment or decline in sexual function)- Many physicians were overly moral in regards to sex- The culture was very paternalistic and the concept of women having sexual urges or desires for sexual pleasure was stigmatized- Masturbation was seen as a serious sexual disease that could lead to degeneracy and deathBreaking free from the pathological view of sex:o Charles Darwin – 19th century British naturalist – sexuality contributes to valuable species diversityo Richard von Krafft Ebing – 19th century German psychiatrist – published case studies of sexual diseases; perversions – unusual/extreme sexual urges or actso Magnus Hirschfeld – 19th – 20th century M.D. – first to use surveys for sex research; helped found the homosexual rights movement in Germany and the institute for sexual research in Berlino Havelock Ellis – treated sexual problems; had an open marriage during “free love movement”o Sigmund Freud – Psychosexual Theory – particular sexual stage where individuals get jealous of same-sex parent – Oedipus and Electra complexes; idea of sexual repression; biological bisexuality; erogenous zoneso Margaret Mead – 20th century US female sex researcher – emphasized that culture was very important in the development of sexual behavior; Idea that culture and biology contribute to sexual well-beingo Alfred Kinsey – 20th century bisexual man – studied sexual behaviors of large, representative US samples; research revealed that people were engaging in a wide variety of sexual behaviors (masturbation, premarital sex, homosexuality); Backlash: lost funding when his research disrupted traditional valueso Mary Calderone – 20th century M.D. – first female doctor to promote contraceptives and early leader of Planned Parenthood; pioneered teen sex educationo Michel Foucault – 20th century French philosopher and historian of sexual ideas (also agay man); challenged Freud’s ideaso William Masters and Virginia Johnson – mid 20th century gynecologist and psychologist; worked to understand arousal and orgasm difficulties by observing sexual behavior in labs; Discoveries: women can have multiple orgasms, while men have a refractory period after intercourse- Sexual Identity: self-identification as heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual (sexual orientation)- Women’s demands for equality in the 1920s + increased visibility of homosexual community= threatened “masculinity”Chapter 3Sexuality, Media, and the Internet- Sexual content in the media has changed our culture in 4 key ways:1. Private sexual imagery has become public2. More explicit sexual images are being shared3. Explicit sex talk has become more acceptable in diverse conversations4. Sexual material in pop culture has transformed public attitudes about sexuality in society as a wholeHistory1895 – Oscar Wilde tried for sodomy in London (Dorian Gray)1938 – Frank Sinatra was a sex symbol for teenage girls1953 – Hugh Hefner published the first issue of Playboy1956 – Elvis Presley appeared on TV and was censored from the waste down1970s on – TV evolves to include explicit discussion of various sexual topics (Three’s Company, Seinfeld, Friends, Sex and the City… i.e. topics of friends to lovers…)1995 – Online adult entertainment began1998 – Clinton scandal- Sexual consumerism: the use of sexuality to market and sell products to consumers (i.e. Victoria’s Secret)- Shared sexual images: content that contains explicit or hidden sexual messages, whether real or imagined, visual or auditory; from multiple media sources - The media depicts idealized versions of romance, sex, desire, and pleasure- Vampires go from monsters to masculine, erotic, beautiful, wise, loyal, protective, wealthy and immortal- Music has the ability to influence people’s sexual well-being, desires and urgesSexual Information Online  Enhancement of Healthy Sexuality The Internet- Access to knowledge, skills, and behaviors that lead to healthy sexuality (i.e. teenagerscan access information about contraception)- Largest force for sexual literacy- Sexual socialization- Provides social communities- Provides a less threatening place for speaking with a potential romantic partner and setup dates (i.e. Facebook, eHarmony)- Virtual connectedness (Skype  long distance romance and relationships)- Provides a place to test out sexual identities - Provides a platform to explore one’s sexual desires and feelings- Place to determine what one is looking for in a long-term partner (emotionally, mentally, and physically)- Increased child and teenage exposure to sexual content (sexual chat rooms, sexual music videos, and porn)- Increased people’s exposure to inaccurate information about sexual behavior- Increased sharing at explicit sexual images/videos and verbal content (sexting)- Potential inauthentic information and risky encounters (i.e. pedophiles)Sexting – sharing highly explicit sexual images of oneself through the internetConsequences – embarrassment, stigmatization, social alienation, bullying, harassment, loss of opportunities, negative affect, self-harming behaviors, suicidal ideation/attempt/completionChapter 4 Sexual Anatomy/PhysiologyPituitary Gland – master, base of the brain, secretion stimulate activity of other endocrine glandsEndocrine glands – glands that make sex hormones (ovaries, testes)Oxytocin – neuropeptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus that influences our feelings of erotic attraction and


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