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ODU BIOL 109N - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 8Lecture 1 (January 12)- What is Life? Humans in the world of BiologyList and describe the typical characteristics of life? Define and exemplify the following levels of organization: individual, population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere.There are 7 characteristics of LIFE1. Living things contain nucleic acids (DNA), proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. 2. Living things are composed of cells. Cells are the smallest units of life. Some are unicellular or multicellular organisms. All cells come from preexisting cells. 3. Living things grow and reproduce. All organisms reproduce their own kind. 4. Living things use energy and raw materials. All chemical reactions that occur within the cells of living things5. Living things respond to their environment. For a living thing to respond, it must first detecta stimulus and then have a way to react. 6. Living things maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is the relatively constant and self-correcting internal environment of a living organism. 7. Populations of living evolve and have adaptive traits. Adaptive traits involve traits that help it survive and reproduce. Identify characteristics that are uniquely human? Human belong to a subdivision of the animal kingdom called vertebrates or mammals. Two characteristics that make us mammals are: 1) hair 2) we feed our young on milk products by mammary glands. As primates we have forward-looking eyes and particularly well developed brain. Biological Diversity – the number and variety of species found within a specified geographic region. Life is organized on many levels. BIOL 117 1nd Edition1. Individual – a single organism 2. Population – all individuals of the same species in an area.3. Community - all the species in an ecosystem that can interact 4. Ecosystem - a community and its physical environment 5. Biosphere- the part of the earth that supports life. Lecture 2 (January 21) - Research Methods List and explain the steps in the scientific methods? Design an experiment with a control and experimental group that follows the scientific method?Science is a systematic approach to answering questions. Science uses observation and experimentation to describe and understand why things happen as they do in the natural world. Scientific Method is a way of learning about the natural world by applying certain rules of logic to the way information is gathered and conclusions are drawn. Steps of Scientific Methods: 1. Make observation. Ask questions: Why? How? What? 2. Develop a testable hypothesis (possible explanation) as a possible answer to your question. Using prior knowledge, additional observation etc. 3. Test hypothesis. - Make predictions – specific statements that can be directly tested “if..then”- Test predictions. If prediction met, hypothesis is supported. If prediction is not met, hypothesis is proven wrong- Experimental questions- does one variable affect another variable? - Independent variable- can be manipulated- Dependent variable- depends of independent variable - Control group – an unmanipulated point of comparison - Controlled experiment – the effects of all variables are controlled 4. Draw a conclusion based on the results of the experiment. 5. Make new predictions, and test themExample: 1) Hypothesis: eating oatmeal lowers blood cholesterol levels2) Prediction: If oatmeal consumption lowers blood cholesterol levels, then a person’s cholesterol level will be lowered by eating a bowl of oatmeal a day for 6 weeks. 3) Perform an experiment: Experimental group: consumes 1 oz. of oatmeal , Control group consumes 1 oz. of farina per day4) Eating a bowl of oatmeal lowers your cholesterol therefore our hypothesis is true. 5) Eating and exercising everyday will lower your cholesterol and increase your energy. Differentiate between hypothesis and theory? Explain the reasoning behind a double-blind study? Explain the importance of critical thinking?Theory is well-supported and wide-ranging explanation of some aspect of the physical universe. Because of its breadth, a theory cannot be tested by a single experiment but instead emerges from many observations, hypothesis, and experiments. Double-blinded study is when neither the researcher not the study participants know which people are receiving treatment and which are receiving the placebo. It is important that participants not know whether they are receiving the placebo or the drug because their expectation about the drug could affect the way the respond. Similarly, researchers should not know which people are in the experimental or control group because their expectations or desire for a particular result could affect their interpretation of the data. Critical thinking consists of asking questions, gathering information, and evaluating evidence and its source carefully before drawing conclusions. Lecture 3 ( January 26) - Major Molecules of Life Exemplify the structure and biological purpose of a carbohydrate, lipid and protein? Explain the importance of the function of each of the four major macromolecules? Describe the different categories of carbohydrates and their uses? Compare and contrast different categories of lipids and their structures? There are 25 elements found in your body and the BIG 4Macromolecules – big giant molecules of life, they are long chains called polymers made of repeating units called monomers, which are the small subunits that form the building blocks of polymer (looks like a pearl necklace each monomer representing a pearl).When polymers are made, water is removed, and the reaction is called dehydration synthesis. Conversely, when the polymers are broken apart, water is added and the reaction is called hydrolysis. It plays a critical role in digestion. 4 Major Macromolecules:1) Carbohydrate 2) Lipids3) Proteins4) Nucleic acids Carbohydrates – polymers. Primary serves as fuel for organisms. Form cell structure in all life forms. Classified base on the size and composition: - Monosaccharides or simple sugars (fructose, glucose, ect), consists of three to six atoms. Glucose is the most important – found naturally in fruits but most carbs that we eat are converted into glucose in the digestive system. Circulates in the blood “blood sugar”. Fuel for cellular activity( muscle contraction or nerve activities), stored temporarily in liver and muscles as glycogen. Converted to fat- long-term energy storage. - Disaccharides or double sugars.


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