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UH NUTR 3336 - Obesity

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NUTR 3336 1st Edition Lecture 1Outline of Last Lecture N/A First Day of ClassOutline of Current Lecture ObesityI. What do these terms mean? Pathophysiology Pathogenesis Epidemiology EtiologyII. What is Obesity An excess of adipose tissue A proportion of body wt composed of adipose tissue (percent body fat) that exceeds a range that is considered “healthy”III. Assessments for Measuring Body Fat Skinfold test Underwater weighing Bioelectrical impedance Air-displacement plethysmography Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometryIV. Body Mass Index Body Mass Index (BMI) Kg/m² OR(weight in pounds x 703)/(height in inches)²V. Body Mass Index BMI Classifications:Underweight < 18.5Normal 18.5-24.9Overweight 25-29.9Obesity (class 1)30-34.9Obesity (class 2)35-39.9Extreme Obesity (class 3)> 40VI. Body Fat Distribution 2 Types► Abdominal or Centralo Usually in maleso Apple or android shape► Lower bodyThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.o Usually in femaleso Pear or GynoidVII. Epidemiology of Obesity Obesity is an “EPIDEMIC”► “Globesity” According to WHO (World Health Organization) Less than 5% in some nations to greater than 75% in others.VIII. Obesity in AmericaIX. Epidemiology of Obesity Obesity in the United States► From 1976-1980 to 2011-2012 the percentage of obesity increased from 15-34.9%o 34.9% of US adults are obeseo 17% of children (ages 2-19yr) are considered obese► Results from NHANES 1999-2002, indicate 65% of US adults are overweight or obese► JAMA. 2014;311(8):806-814. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.732.X. Epidemiology of Obesity► Race/Ethnicity► Socioeconomic Status► AgeXI. Etiology of Obesity► Etiology of Obesityo The original theory is that obesity develops when chronic energy intake exceeds energy expenditureo Etiology of obesity is very elusive!o It seems like a simple concept but is actually a heterogeneous group of disordersXII. Etiology of Obesity► Obesity can be caused by:o Medical Disorderso Medical Treatmentso Geneticso Obesigenic EnvironmentXIII. Etiology of Obesity► Obesity can be caused by:o Obesigenic Environment► Average Energy Consumption IncreasesYear 1971-1974 1999-2000US adult Males 2450 kcals 2618 kcalsUS adult Female 1542 kcals 1877 kcalsXIV. Etiology of Obesity► How does lack of energy expenditure contribute to obesity?o Automated work environmento Neighborhood environmento Busy lifestyleso Convenient tools to assist with household o Reduction in physical education programs in schoolsXV. Pathogenesis/Pathophysiology of Obesity► Multifactorialo Effect of glandular conditions o Hormonal involvemento Genes= inconsistent resultso overconsumption of energy without adequate energy utilizationXVI. Pathogenesis of Obesity► Leads to MANY comorbidities including:o Cardiovascular Diseaseo Blood Lipid Problemso Diabeteso Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin ResistanceXVII. Pathogenesis of Obesity► Leads to MANY comorbidities including:o Hypertensiono Respiratory Problemso Gallbladder Diseaseo ArthritisCurrent LectureObesityI. What do these terms mean? Pathophysiology Pathogenesis Epidemiology EtiologyII. What is Obesity An excess of adipose tissue A proportion of body wt composed of adipose tissue (percent body fat) that exceeds a range that is considered “healthy”III. Assessments for Measuring Body Fat Skinfold test Underwater weighing Bioelectrical impedance Air-displacement plethysmography Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometryIV. Body Mass Index Body Mass Index (BMI) Kg/m² OR(weight in pounds x 703)/(height in inches)²V. Body Mass Index BMI Classifications:Underweight < 18.5Normal 18.5-24.9Overweight 25-29.9Obesity (class 1)30-34.9Obesity (class 2)35-39.9Extreme Obesity (class 3)> 40VI. Body Fat Distribution 2 Types► Abdominal or Centralo Usually in maleso Apple or android shape► Lower bodyo Usually in femaleso Pear or GynoidVII. Epidemiology of Obesity Obesity is an “EPIDEMIC”► “Globesity” According to WHO (World Health Organization) Less than 5% in some nations to greater than 75% in others.VIII. Obesity in AmericaIX. Epidemiology of Obesity Obesity in the United States► From 1976-1980 to 2011-2012 the percentage of obesity increased from 15-34.9%o 34.9% of US adults are obeseo 17% of children (ages 2-19yr) are considered obese► Results from NHANES 1999-2002, indicate 65% of US adults are overweight or obese► JAMA. 2014;311(8):806-814. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.732.X. Epidemiology of Obesity► Race/Ethnicity► Socioeconomic Status► AgeXI. Etiology of Obesity► Etiology of Obesityo The original theory is that obesity develops when chronic energy intake exceeds energy expenditureo Etiology of obesity is very elusive!o It seems like a simple concept but is actually a heterogeneous group of disordersXII. Etiology of Obesity► Obesity can be caused by:o Medical Disorderso Medical Treatmentso Geneticso Obesigenic EnvironmentXIII. Etiology of Obesity► Obesity can be caused by:o Obesigenic Environment► Average Energy Consumption IncreasesYear 1971-1974 1999-2000US adult Males 2450 kcals 2618 kcalsUS adult Female 1542 kcals 1877 kcalsXIV. Etiology of Obesity► How does lack of energy expenditure contribute to obesity?o Automated work environmento Neighborhood environmento Busy lifestyleso Convenient tools to assist with household o Reduction in physical education programs in schoolsXV. Pathogenesis/Pathophysiology of Obesity► Multifactorialo Effect of glandular conditions o Hormonal involvemento Genes= inconsistent resultso overconsumption of energy without adequate energy utilizationXVI. Pathogenesis of Obesity► Leads to MANY comorbidities including:o Cardiovascular Diseaseo Blood Lipid Problemso Diabeteso Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin ResistanceXVII. Pathogenesis of Obesity► Leads to MANY comorbidities including:o Hypertensiono Respiratory Problemso Gallbladder Diseaseo


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