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U-M BIOLOGY 172 - Lecture 12

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Lecture 11I. LysosomesA. apart of the endomembrane systemB. acetic pHC. several different digestive points1. Phagocytosis2. Autophagyi. self digesition ii. recycling centerD Not in plantsII. Receptor-mediated Endocytosis- need recycling of receptors(proteins) of receptors from lysosome back to plasma membraneA. Macromolcules outside the cell binf to membrane proteins that act as receptorsB. The plasma membrane folds in and pinched off to form a vesicle called an early endosomeC. The early endosome undergoes a series of processing steps includinf activation of protein pumps that lower its pHD. The early endosome matures into a late endosome that receives digestive enzymes from the Golgi apparusE the late endomse eventually matures into a functional lysosomeIII. VacuoleA. replace lysosomes for plantsB. organelle with diverse functions including ion storage, water regulation, and degradationIV. Endomembrane System- an integrated network molecular traffickingA. Smooth and Rough ERBV. MitochondriaA. energy processing1. can break down glucose to make ATP2. Cellular repirationi. only in eukaryotes but prokaryotes do it but without organelles3. Photosynthesisi. occurs in chloroplastB. Two Membranes1. Outer membrane- barrier to determine what enter and leaves cell2. Inner membrane- energy reactions aka integral membrane proteins which is key to create energy for the cellC. Semi-autonomour1.. only organelles that have DNA and ribosomes them selves2, believed that they were free living organismsi. Endosymbiosis theory of originii. supported by double membrane, ribosomes, andiii. lost DNA material when gobbled up 3. codes for some of their own proteinsD. they have their one single circular chromosomesE. can also divide because tey have their own genetic materialF. organelles that generate energy for the cellVI. ChloroplastA Three membranes 1. Thylakoid- membrane stacks B. Organelle that carrier out photosynthesisC. Composed of three membrane(2 systems)VII. Endosymbiotic Theory( Not Testable)A. an organism that did not have membrane bound organelles and the theory says how it got these organellesB. Mitochondrion can no longer occur on its own because it cant make all of its proteinsVIII. Singal sequences on protein synthesized by free ribosomes (Memorization)A. free ribosomes synthesize protine to be used in the cytosol or in organelles that renot apart ot the endomembrane systemB. Proteins destined for location inside the cell are not apart of the endomembrane systemC. Cytosol1. protein need for glycolysis will lack a signal protein D. Amino terminal means they go to the chloroplastE. Internal signal protein to the nucleusProperties of EukaryotesI. CytoskeltonA. allows the cells to maintain shape and allows for movement and organizationB. Three components that can work together but with different functions1. Microfilamentsi. Macde of actinii. involved in muscle contraction, cytoplasmic stramingiii. Mysoin (motor proteins that are ATP dirvien and instrumental in muscle contraction) that hold the vesicle and move it down the track2. Microtublesi. made of tubulinii. largest of the threeiii. involved in chromosome distribution, and cell mobility (cilia)…cell divisioniv. puling chromosomes apartv. Kinesin ( motor protein)3. Intermediate filaments(intermident in size)i. various componentsii. provide structural supportC. Motor proteins( myosin and kinesin) move vesicles along microfilaments and tublin m icrotubles for intracellular transportD. Motor proteins require ATP for movmentE. Actin and myosin interact to cause movement1.when myosin head attached to actin and moves the actin filments side ways2. II. Components of the Animal Extra Cellular MatrixA. Collagen- structural protein that intrefaces the outside and the inside of the cellB. Fibronectin- connects collagen o intergrins and this is important for cell adhesionand wound healingC. Intergins- transmembran receptors pass information about ECM1,. Attached to actin filament to the fibronectin D. Cytoskelton and Actin filament work inside the cellIII. ECM in plantsA. Cellulose mircofibibrils are polymers of beta glucose subunits which are crosslinked with hydrogen bondsB. Pectin- a polysaccharide fills in between cellulose mircorfibrilsCell-Cell ConnectionsI. Tight jeunctionsA. water tight seal so nothing can move between but throughII. PlasmodesmataA. create gaps that connect plant cellsB. important in sugar transpot in plants so that all cells have sugar withouth theneed to photo synthsizeIII. Gap JunctionsA. creat gaps that connect animal cells B. important for ion movement though cellAnimalsPlants*have an idea of what can be seen with the unaided eye I. Light MircoscopeA. takes advantage of light spassing thoughB. allows you to examine living thingsC. Resolution us low compared to electron microscopy II. A. DAPI- DNA


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