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    This study guide is a comprehensive tool to study from lectures 11 through 18 for the second exam. It includes questions and detailed answers from each lecture. It includes definitions and reviews major concepts.
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    More details about mutations, and why they occur in cells. The many ways base pairs can be altered are explained. Then this lecture covers all the ways the base pairs can be repaired.
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    This lecture covered the rest of Molecular Biology. This includes more details about PCR, and the Insertion, Annealing, and Extension during PCR. There is a brief intro to Western Blotting, and to Mutations.
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    This lecture goes over the process of the Polymerase Chain Reaction, or PCR. It continues to Gel Electrophoresis, and then covers how bacteria replicate resistance to antibiotics.
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    Photosynthesis and how it helps plant cells make sugar and oxygen. There are details about the Calvin Cycle, where Carboxylation, Reduction, and Regeneration happen.
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    Cellular Respiration and its components shown in great detail during this lecture. This includes glycolysis, to pyruvate processing, then the citric acid cycle, and finally the electron transport chain.
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    This lecture goes into detail about the importance of microscopy, or using microscopes. Then we discuss metabolism and its importance for the cell to get energy. Cell Respiration is this lecture's final topic, covering glycolysis and how ATP is generated.
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    Continue description of lysosomes. This lecture covers how mitochondria produce energy for the cell, and why proteins need signals to get where they are going in cells. This lecture also starts to look at important structural differences between plant and animal cells.
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    Detailed description of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and their structures. Outlined differences between plant and animal cells. The Endomembrane system is described, and this lecture explores a proteins path from the nucleus to its final destination in the cell.
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    Covers material in lecture 1-10, including Enzymes, Chemical Bonds, Energy, Cell Theory, The Scientific Method, Functional Groups, Proteins, Protein Structure, Carbohydrates, Lipids, DNA Replication, Transcription, Translation, and Membranes. More details within the study guide!
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    Lipids are the macromolecule that makes up cell membranes. They form a bilayer and this lecture goes into detail about the fluidity of that bilayer based on lipids. This lecture also covers how cells transport molecules through their membranes.
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    Details about enzymes and their inhibitors. The factors that affect reaction rates. Begin carbohydrates, and their function in a cell.
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    This lecture was about post translational modifications to mRNA and polypeptides. We looked at the denaturation of proteins that can happen, and how chaperones help proteins fold again. Finally we looked at energy required for reactions, and how enzymes help to catalyze many reactions.
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    Covers mRNA processing with snRNPs, and continues on about translation. Includes the basic features of translation as well as the role a ribosome plays.
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    Brief review of DNA replication, and many details on transcription. The three stages of Initiation, Elongation, and Termination are covered with diagrams.
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    Covers the bases of DNA strands and how they help stabilize a double helix, to the exact processes of DNA replication. There are important charts so you can recognize the appearance of each step in replication of DNA.
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    Four levels of protein structure are defined. Then details about nucleotides and base pairing in DNA. Goes into detail about experiments that prove DNA is how genes are passed.
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    This lecture ranges from types of bonds to how those bonds react in water. It also goes into more detail on Amino Acids and Proteins.
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    This lecture describes cell theory, and delves into the experiments of Redi and Pasteur to determine if cells could spontaneously generate or not. Determines the process of the scientific method. Outline of Evolution by Natural Selection, and then determines the basic chemistry knowledge required for Bio 172.

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