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U-M BIOLOGY 172 - Lecture 11

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Lecture 1I. Prokaryote v. EukaryotesA. Lack Nuclear MembraneB. Lack of OrganellesC. Much smallerD. Still Metabolically ComplexII. Cellular Organization of Prokaryotes(Mainly refers to Bacteria little known about Archea) A. Nucleoid- area wher chromosomes are located1. include singler circular chromosome(DNA)B. Plasmids- not apart of the chromosome themselves, has antibiotic resistantmarkers ( one or more genes that can break down antibioticsC. Cytoskeleton- allows proteins to maintain shape, maintain motility1. Bacteria lack actin but they have MreBD. Flagellum1. Energy from E. Pilus- extensions that allow the bacteria to adhere to the substrate and genetic transfer between bacteriaF. Lacks histone protons but they have similar things that link NDAG. Cell- Wall Peptioglogyclein hooked by glycol cicidc and amino acid side changes that can link them together and makes it really strongIII. MreB(Actin Annlog) as a Determinant of shapeA. determine where peptidoglycan is going to be laid down and recurtis celouse beta units that will make the cell wall exterior to the proteinB. the peptid. Will remain the ridged shapeIV. MreB and Crescentain as Determinants of Cell MorphologyA. Crescentin is an analog of eukaryotic intermediate filamentsB. key for shapeC. will bind the bacteria into a crescent shapeD. without MreB the bacteria will lose shape and dies because it cant divide properly and the genetic material is not distributed evenlyV. The Fts Ring and Cell DivisionA. filaments are temperature sensitiveB. universal among pro and forms ring and pinch DNA into twoC. related to mircotublues D. annologus to mircotubleVI. Cytoskeletal Element ComparisonsEukaryotes ProkaryotesDivision Tubulin FtsZShape Actin MreBShape Intermediate Filaments CresVII. Compartmentalization in EukaryotesA. Most are multicellular and communication is keyB. segregate different reactions in different organellesC. When the product on one is the substrate from another enzyme is is convenient for a compartment to hold all the enzymes needed for a certain reactionVIII. Properties of EukaryotesA. Information processing in the nucleus1. Nuclear Envelopei. Chromosomesii. Nucleolusa. where most of the genetic material is storedb. the location of chromosomes(DNA-polar) and Protein-histones are basic)c. Double membrane it pores(allows things to enter and leave the nucleusd. Contains filaments( nuclear lamina) that maintain its shape and organization…compose of intermediate filamentse. Contains the nucleolus1) site of ribosome synthesis and assemblyiii. Nucleoplasmiv. Nuclear IaminaB. Synthesis1. Ribosomes(Cytoplasmic-not attached to the rough ER), Rough and Smooth ER2. Proteins are synthesized on the ribosomesi. Three places in the cell to find ribosomesa. free in the cytoplasm1) proteins destined for organelles, cytosolb. Bound to the ER1) leaving and becoming apart of the membrane2) exported/scretedc. in energy processing organellesC. Processing and Modification 1. Golgi Apparatusi. stacks of membranesii. receives contents(lipids or proteins) and vesicle will enter the cis(flatten stack of membranes) face and will join and become modified and the vesicle will exit the trans which is opposite of the rough ER and the vesicales come from the golgi(gives the protein or lip pa cellular destinationiii. export thru the endomembrane system1. sythensis on ER2. Transport to Golgi3. Glycosylation4. Exocytosis/secretionD. The endomembrane system- Manufactoring and shipping proteins1. cells have secretory pathways in which rough ER and golgo apparataus function 2. The space between is known as the lumen3. will be coded and will give the identity of the protein where it will function 4. Lysomes degrade macromolcuelsi. Mannose-6- phospahe modification for proteinds destined or lysomones and are basiclally recycle centersii. Small digestive organelle- acidic pH=5iii. contains hydrolytic enzmyesiv. How are material deliver to Lysosomesa. Phagocytosis- a cell engulfs material, lysosome digesting foodb. Autophagy- degregfghjkration of unnecessary(damaged organelle) or damages cellular componentsc. Receptor- mediated endocytosisE. Endoplasmic Recticulum(Rough and Smooth)1. Organelle made of complex out folding2. Proteins proteina dn lipids that will function on the inside and the outside of the cell3. Roughi. has ribosomes attached and the proteinsa re secreted out ii. modifies proteins and directs their transport4 .Smoothi. attached to the rough but lacks ribosomesii. Makes lipids and sugarsiii. detox organelle…detoxes drugs and alcholIX. Signal Recogintion Particle(SRP- is a ribonucleoprotine which is a protein RNA complex) and the SRP receptorA. proteins destined for the ER lumen or secretion use SRPB. Export of protein via the majpr secreyoty system1. Bacteria use this process as well2. Sec and SRP is located at the beginning of the proteins for export and is removed once the protein is moved3. signal sequence bound by


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