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U-M BIOLOGY 172 - Lecture 9

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Lecture 9I. Cataobilc Reactions(exergonic) have a negative delta G and anabolic reactions(enogonic and requires energy) have a positive delta GII.Activation energy is lowered and the enzymes apply pressue and we end with product that are dissimilarIII. Rate of reaction increases as to a maxium rate( Vmax)A. Adding more substrates and and all the enzymes active sites all full= saturation and the vmax the maximum value that the enzymes can workIV. Enzyme Kinetic Vaires with Substrate ConcentrationA. Vamx1. enzyme is processing subsrtae to product as fast at it can(saturation)B. The low substrate concentration the rate will continue to increase untill it reachesmax which is the highest it can functionC.To increase the amount of enzymes will increase the D. Vmax is reached when enzyme is processing substrate to product as fast as it can(saturation)1. KM-represents the amount of substrates it takes to occupy half of the enymes active sites 2. go to half the vmax and draw to the curve and draw down to the x-axis3.*the KM will always be a substrate concentrationThe smaller the Km means the more effeicnt and the subsrtae is good fro the enzymeE. enzymes have varying tendenices to bind their substrate and An enzyme's Km describes the substrate concentration at which half the enzyme's active sites are occupied by substrate. A high Km means a lot of substrate must be present to saturate the enzyme, meaning the enzyme has low affinity for the substrate. On the other hand, a low Km means only a small amount of substrate is needed to saturate the enzyme, indicating a high affinity for substrate. 1. High Km- high substrate which means the fit is not good Low Km- means the substrate is a good fitAffintity=attractionSubstrate A is the better one because it takes less substrate to bind with that reactionF. Km is higher for enzymes with lower affinity for substrate (less efficient) >> need increased [S] V. KmA. describes the affinity of an enzyme for its substrate1. A low Km means that the enzyme hold the substrate tightly (high affinity) and is more efficient at converting it toproduct.2. A high Km means that the enzyme holds the substrate loosely (lower affinity) and is less efficient at converting it to product.B. Km is not affected by enzyme concentration VI. VmaxA. Increase enzyme concentration1. when every enzyme has substrtae acttached to it B. Vmax is proptional to enzyme concentrationVII. CofatorsA.


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