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BIOL 2061 1st Edition Lecture 4 Outline of Last Lecture I. Environmental changesII. Origin of EukaryotesIII. Geologic timeIV. Characteristics of lifeOutline of Current Lecture I. Views on evolutionII. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell WallaceIII. EvolutionIV. Natural selectionLecture-I. Views of evolutiona. Old view= All forms of life had remained the same since their creationi. Reformed view-1. George Buffon (late 1700’s)= living things change.2. Erasmus Darwin= fossils show that animals change over time, selective breeding shows that species can change over a short period of time, off spring inherit traits for parents , and ALL life can have common ancestor.b. Old view= all forms of life had remained the same since their creation and species can’t change into new species.i. Reformed view-1. Jean- Baptiste Lamarck= fossils show that species change over time, species adapt to new environments, and all things evolve toward human protection. (the last two aren’t very accepted now days)c. Old view= only catastrophic events can change the Earth’s surface features. Earthwas 6,000 years oldi. Reformed view-These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.1. Charles Lyell- processes that occur today have always been occurring and most changes in Earth’s surface are the result of an accumulation of smaller changes. Earth is older than 6,000 years old.ii. Reformed view-1. Thomas Malthus- Reproductive potential in humans is exponential, but resources to support them can increase only to a point and the increase is slower.II. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallacea. The fundamental principle underlying evolution is that biological species change over the course of many generations.b. Darwin hypothesized that existing life forms are the product of the modification of pre-existing forms- Descent with modification III. Evolution- is a genetic change in one or more characteristics of a population of species across many generationsa. Evolution occurs on the population level and not individualIV. Natural selection (evolution)a. Variation: different individuals have to have different phenotypes. This variant can get fixated (all orange color)b. Heritability: traits have to biological, passed form parent to of offspring. (gene expression)c. Selection Pressure: individuals with certain traits survive and reproduce more under certain conditions. Reproduction is more important than survivali. Predators are an example of SPd. Time: successful variations accumulate over many generations e. Individuals cannot


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