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IUB BIOL-M 200 - RNA and DNA

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Biology M200 1st Edition Lecture 7 Microbial GeneticsII. Making DNA, RNA, and proteinsIII. ReplicationIV. TranslationCurrent LectureTerminology- Genes: units of inheritance that determine the traits (characteristics) passed from one generation to the next. - Alleles: variants of a gene- Genome: the entire collection of all genetic material in a microbe.DNA- The two DNA strands intertwine to form a double helix. - A always binds with T, and C always binds with G. (%A=%T, %G=%C)- DNA carries the genetic information in its sequence.Plasmids (Bacteria)- Small, circular extra-chromosomal DNA- Carries genes with non-essential functions- 5,000-80,000 nucleoids long.The Central dogma of Biology- Begins with replication (genes) to RNA (messages) to Protein (products)- Replication: Helicase- unzips DNAo DNA POLYMERASE: the replicating enzyme- DNA always goes from 5 prime to 3 primeReplication Initiation- Origin is a specific DNA sequence at which replication begins, “oriC”These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Terminus is a DNA region at which each replication fork ends during replication.- DNA polymerase and helicase bind to the DNA at oriC and begin replication.- Elongationo Replication is bidirectionalo Two complexes of DNA polymerase set off in opposite directions.o DNA polyermase stops at terC- Separationo Each new copy resides in its own new daughter cell.Transcription- RNA synthesis- DNA sends messages to ribosomes- This mRNA message is made by RNA polymerase- Promoters (DNA sequences) control transcription.- RNA polymeraseo The core is responsible for assembling RNAo Sigma finds promoters on the DNA strands where the RNA polymerase can bind.o Each sigma recognizes a specific promoter sequence. Determines which messages get sent. - Promoterso Promoters are DNA sequences that indicate where to start transcription (start the message)o All of these promoters are recognized by sigmao Promoter sequences are NOT identical.o Promoters vary in strength. (Strong promoters are closer to consensus)- RNA polymerase unwinds a small piece of DNA into single strands.- rRNA (ribosomal): forms structure of the ribosome, recognizes messages, assembles proteins- tRNA (transfer): activates amino acids and read the mRNA


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