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UT Knoxville ANSC 160 - 160 Lecture 1 handout

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1Dairy Industry OverviewDairy Industry OverviewJeff MitchellInstructorAnimal Science DepartmentUniversity of TennesseeU.S. Dairy StatisticsU.S. Dairy Statistics 66,000 Herds/9,100,000 Cows 130 Cows per HerdNew Mexico1400 cows per herd–New Mexico –1400 cows per herd– California – 781– Tennessee - 100Milk ProductionMilk Production 18,900 Pounds per cow Washington23 000–Washington –23,000– Louisiana – 12,000Key Dairy StatesKey Dairy States California – 2,161 herds – 1,688,000 cowsWisconsin16 455 herds1256000cowsWisconsin –16,455 herds –1,256,000 cows New York – 6,549 herds – 671,000 cows Pennsylvania – 9,140 herds – 575,000 cows$$$$ Nationally$$$$ Nationally 170 Billion Pounds or 19.5 Billion Gallons21 227 695 000 in Total Dollars21,227,695,000 in Total Dollars 10 % of Total Agricultural Receipts Ranks 2ndto Cattle ProductionIndustry TrendsIndustry Trends Fewer & Larger Herds Slightly Fewer CowsMore Milk per CowMore Milk per Cow Total Production Somewhat Constant Shift in Geographic areas of Production2Milk MarketingMilk Marketing Farmers are Paid per Hundred Pounds of Milk Current Price is around 22.50 per Hundred or 2.00 per GallonUses of Raw MilkUses of Raw Milk Cheese 49% Fluid Milk 28%Butter 7%Butter 7% Frozen Products 7% Non-fat Dry Milk 3% Other 6%HolsteinHolstein 95 % of National Herd Origin: Holland Color: Black & White or Red & White Weight: 1500 lbs. Milk Yield: 20,500 lbs. % Butterfat: 3.7JerseyJersey 4% of National Herd Origin: Jersey Island Color: Fawn, but can ,be light or dark, can also have white spots Weight: 1000 lbs Milk Yield:14,750 lbs. % Butterfat: 4.7Brown SwissBrown Swiss .4 % of National Herd Origin: Switzerland Color: Blackish/Brown, with light tips Weight: 1400 lbs. Milk Yield:16,700 lbs. % Butterfat: 4.0GuernseyGuernsey .3 % of National Herd Origin: Guernsey Isld. Color: Light fawn & gWhite, with Yellow Skin Weight: 1100 lbs. Milk Yield:14,100 lbs. % Butterfat: 4.53AyrshireAyrshire .2 % of National Herd Origin: Scotland Color: Mahogany & gyWhite, can be spotted Weight: 1200 lbs. Milk Yield:15,100 lbs. % Butterfat: 3.9Milking ShorthornMilking Shorthorn .1 % of National Herd Origin: Great Britain Color: Deep Red & pWhite, or Roan Weight: 1250 lbs. Milk Yield:13,900 lbs. % Butterfat: 3.6Historically a Purebred IndustryHistorically a Purebred Industry Crossbreeding– Fertility Breeds of Interest– Holstein/Jersey– Calving Ease– Health Traits– Productive Life– Montbiliard– Swedish Reds– Scandinavian redsLife of a Dairy CowLife of a Dairy Cow Sex of calf determines fate Upon birthFeed colostrum-Feed colostrum-Remove from dam-Individual housing Calf Hutches Calf barns with pensCalf HutchesCalf Hutches Calf Barn with PensCalf Barn with Pens4Birth to 8Birth to 8--10 Weeks10 Weeks Most Costly & Labor Intensive Period Milk Replacer/Waste Milk Clean and Dryy-Scours Wean in 6-8 weeks (Eating 2 lbs. of Grain)10 Weeks to 12 months10 Weeks to 12 months Group Housing-PastureHeifer Barn-Heifer Barn Keep Them Healthy & GrowingHeifer HousingHeifer Housing 14 to 16 Months14 to 16 Months Breeding Age at First CalvingGoal is 24 months (National Avg 28)–Goal is 24 months (National Avg. 28)– Significant impact on Profitability– Breed Differences Healthy & Growing24 Months24 Months Calve or Freshen– Giving Birth initiates Milk Production–Return on InvestmentReturn on Investment Calving is Critical Time– Calving Problems (Primarily 1stTime Calvers)– Metabolic Disease– MastitisLactationLactation Period of Time from calving to being turned dry 7-10 Days 70lb./100lbs. Peak in 60-90 daysy Most cows are milked 2X per day, but some 3 or 4 Standard Lactation = 305 days Ideally a cow will stay in the herd for many lactations, but the average is 2.75MastitisMastitis Inflammation of the Udder Most costly disease in U.S. Animal Agricultureg Causes– Improper Milking Procedures– Unsanitary Environment– Injury– GeneticsReproductionReproduction Very Important!!!!! Get Pregnant again in 60-90 daysLactation CurveLactation Curve Calving Interval– Period of time from one calving to the next National Average about 14 monthsDry PeriodDry Period Period of time from being turned dry to next calving Stopping the milking process causes milk production to ceaseproduction to cease Rest & Rejuvenation of mammary gland Ideally cows are turned dry 60 days prior to next due date– 60 day dry period is standard, but can be shorter– Reproduction plays major roleSummary of Ideal Life of a Dairy Summary of Ideal Life of a Dairy CowCow Birth after 279 day gestation Weaned at 8 weeksPregnant first time at 15 monthsPregnant first time at 15 months Calving first time at 24 months Pregnant again in 60-90 days  Calving again in 12-13 months Repeat Pregnancy and Calving Many TimesPrimary Reasons for Leaving the Primary Reasons for Leaving the HerdHerd Low Production Reproduction Disease Injuryp Mastitisjy ConformationKeys to ProfitabilityKeys to Profitability Calf Death Loss Age at 1stCalving Number of Lactations Disease Resistancegg Production Level Days Open (Repro.)– Mastitis Controlling Inputs6HousingHousingSystemsSystemsTie StallTie StallFree Stall Free Stall Free StallFree Stall Bedded PackBedded PackMilking ParlorsMilking ParlorsHerring Bone & ParallelHerring Bone & ParallelMilking ParlorsMilking ParlorsRotaryRotary7Dairy Herd Improvement Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA)Association (DHIA) Nationwide milk recording and record keeping system for di f DHIA Technician visits the farm each monthdairy farmers Tennessee producers pay approx. 2.25 per cow per month National standards insure consistency – Records milk weight– Collects milk sample– Records herd data I.D. Calving dates Breeding information Dry & Sold dates Herd data transmitted to processing center at NCSU Management records returned to farmer 75 % of Tennessee  Milk samples are shipped to 316 Ellington– Fat– Protein– SCCfarmers receive info. Electronically via PCDART


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