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SELU PSYC 440 - Detection of Sensory Signals

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I. Cerebral CortexA. Newer.B. Top Layer of Brain.C. Only Mammals Have This.D. We as humans are more “top heavy”E. We have biggest brains relative to body size.F. D. Divided into 4 lobesII. LeDoux’s 2 Pathways of Emotion.A. The cerebral cortex helps to regulate emotion but does not produce it.B. Lower or direct pathway of emotiuion.-automatic/reflexive-runs from thalamus to the amygdalaC. Slower indirect pathway-thalamus to cortext to amygdala- Allows for alternative expression of emotion.- helps you have more abstract values of emotion.III. Split BrainA. Left Hemisphere.B. Right HemisphereIV. Brain Imaging Technology.A. PET (Positron Emission Tomography)B. fMRIC. Magnoencephalography.D. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.Psych 440 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture I. Cerebral CortexA. Newer.B. Top Layer of Brain.C. Only Mammals Have This.D. We as humans are more “top heavy” E. We have biggest brains relative to body size.F. D. Divided into 4 lobesII. LeDoux’s 2 Pathways of Emotion.A. The cerebral cortex helps to regulate emotion but does not produce it.B. Lower or direct pathway of emotiuion.-automatic/reflexive-runs from thalamus to the amygdalaC. Slower indirect pathway-thalamus to cortext to amygdala- Allows for alternative expression of emotion.- helps you have more abstract values of emotion.III. Split BrainA. Left Hemisphere.B. Right HemisphereIV. Brain Imaging Technology.A. PET (Positron Emission Tomography)B. fMRI C. Magnoencephalography.D. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.Outline of Current Lecture These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.I. Chapter Three: Detection of Sensory SignalsA. SensationB. PerceptionII. PsychophysicsA. A sub-division of sensation/perception.B. The relationship between physics (physical signal of the environment like light or something) and perception (psychology ie our perception of those changes).III. Absolute Threshold VS Difference ThresholdA. Absolute Threshold B. Difference ThresholdIV. Signal Detection TheoryA. A way of testing thresholds that tries to get more accurately at the subject’s true sensitivity. V. VisionA. The sclera (The fibrous tunic of the eye)B. Vascular Layer (second Layer)C. Ciliary Bodies.D. Anterior Chamber of the eye.E. Retina F. Photo receptorsG. IrisH. LensI. Optic Disk (Blindspot)J. Vitreous Humour.Current LectureVI. Chapter Three: Detection of Sensory SignalsC. Sensation1. The activity of some sense organ.2. Peripheral D. Perception1. The process of giving meaning to that sensory activity.2. Happens in the brain (centrally).VII. PsychophysicsC. A sub-division of sensation/perception.D. The relationship between physics (physical signal of the environment like light or something) and perception (psychology ie our perception of those changes).1. There can be changes in the physical signal that you never detect.2. Sometimes can have the same physical signal yet it looks different to you.VIII. Absolute Threshold VS Difference ThresholdC. Absolute Threshold1. The minimum stimulus energy necessary for detection.D. Difference Threshold1. The minimum change in a signal necessary for the person to detect that the signal has changed.2. Just Noticeable Difference- the amount it takes to notice the difference threshold.3. This is not a constant!!!!4. When you measure the DT you always have to take into account the already present stimulation.- This means the JND is a proportion of the difference threshold.- A constant proportion. IX. Signal Detection TheoryB. A way of testing thresholds that tries to get more accurately at the subject’s true sensitivity. 1. In any signal detection situation there are 4 possible outcomes: -Hit: Answered yes there is a signal and there is actually a signal.-Miss: Said there is no signal but there actually is a signal.-False alarm: You said there is a signal but there is actually no signal present.-Correct rejection: You said there is no signal and you are actually correct.2. The proportion of hits is put against the misses to calculate the Signal Detection.3. The Line Of No Sensitivity is the line in the graph of the detection signal.4. We try to get out the person’s motivation for detecting the signal.5. Hit rate and false alarm rate.X. VisionB. The sclera (The fibrous tunic of the eye)1. is the outermost layer of the eye2. Made for protection.3. As it comes around to the front of the eye:-It bolges out in a convex shape (the cornea).-The cornea is a refractive instrument because it refracts or converges the light.-The fibers become much more uniform in the organization and is transparent.-Allows light o penetrate.G. Vascular Layer (second Layer)1. Has all the blood vessels and capillaries.2. Will bleed if cut into.3. In the back of the eye.H. Ciliary Bodies.1. They pump a clear fluid (Aqueous Humor) into the anterior chamber.2. Functions like blood in order to keep the eye alive.3. No blood in the front of the eye, only in the back.-Does not circulate well and so pressure can buildup in the eye which causes glaucoma. I. Anterior Chamber of the eye.1. The open space of the eye where light passes through.J. Retina 1. The layer that is for processing light energy using photo receptors (nerve cells).2. Very thin and comprised of layers of different cells.3. It is “Backwards.”K. Photo receptors-Attached to vascular layer.-If detached it causes a blind spot.-Inside of the retina.-The last layer of cells and facing away from the light.-Rods and cones are different geographically.1. Rods-Increase in number as moving towards the periphery.-For night vision.-The eye has more rods than cones.-Present peripheraly-125 million rods.-much more sensitive to the mere presence of light.-Helps with seeing in the low light or at night.2. Cones-Found in the center (Macula and fovea) of the retina.-Squished so tightly that their weight causes the pit of the fovea.-For seeing fine details such as forms, patterns, and text.-present centrally.-7 million cones.-Cones are for bright light situations.-For distinguishing color.K. Iris1. The Iris controls the size of the pupil.2. It is a muscle.L. Lens1. Also convex shaped.2. Also refracts or bends light energy.3. Tries to bend the light energy so it lands the focused light on the fovea (the center of the Macula).4. The image that you are focusing on goes directly into the fovea of the


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