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UW-Madison PSYCH 202 - Memory

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Psych 202 1st Edition Lecture 6-CliveoHas sensory and short-term memoryoImplicit memories are still intactoCant engage in elaborative rehearsal-Associating ideas and concepts with new concepts to remember"Chunks"Connect ideas-Organization of explicit LTM: semantic networks of related conceptsoIn semantic networks, the activation of one concept (mental grouping of items that share common properties) leads to priming of semantically related concepts, making their subsequent retrieval more probable-Moral of above vis a vis learning tasks? (your next major exam in college?)oDon’t make mistake of relying on rote/maintenance rehearsal, instead:-Consolidate knowledge by organizing it into semantic networks (focus on encoding meaning)-Use elaborative rehearsal to build your networks-Utilize "chunking" and "hierarchies" or "concept maps" to assist the elaborative rehearsal process-"Reconstructive" Nature of Explicit LTM'soResearch by Elizabeth Loftus (picture on next slide) and others shows the effects of language and external priming on the reconstructive nature of memoryoFor form of question can alter memoryoYour own answer changes your memoryoMemory is not static, can changeoPeople will confess to things they didn’t do and believe later on that they did do ito"The past is malleable and flexible, constantly changing as our recollection reinterprets and reexplains what has happened"-The past is not always the past-We recreate itoDuring original encoding of memory, we store fragments of information; later, when trying to recall, we retrieve the fragments and "fill in the gaps" with logic and other "knowledge" derived from stereotypes, schemas (mental structure related to a concept), and scriptsoExplicit memory construction is a source of distortion, however adaptiveoMemory is destroyed-Implicit/non-declarativeoNot directly accessible to consciousness (they are non-declarative, unconscious)oNot destroyedoIncludes:-Procedural memory: motor skills, habits, tactic rulesThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.-Classical conditioning effects (emotional learning)Bunny's eye lid, blinking when you think you're going to get puffedPin stabbed you in hand, you don’t need to learn and remember that you take your hand back quicklyoExamples of measuring implicit memory-Nonconscious retention measured by indirect effects on performance-One example: Claparede's clinical study: hidden pin-with Korsakoff's patient (1911) (compare Jimmy, Mr. Thompson, and the below case of "Clive)-Korsakov's DisorderoNeurological degeneration, when people drink too much for too longoFrom nutritional deficiency from too much drinkingoMammillary bodies-Connect hippocampus (cant make short term into long term memory without it)-Destruction of mammillary bodies destroys hippocampus AKA just like Clive-Anterograde amnesia: specific symptomCan't learn new materialCan be introduced to same person over and over-Anxiety and discomfort-Confabulation: make stuff upAutomatically, unconscious, person has no knowledge of what they are doingoSack's Cases** Diagnosis, remedy for that diagnosis-Jimmy (2. the lost mariner)-Mr. Thompson (12. a matter of identity)-Mrs. O' C and Mrs. O' M (15. reminiscence)Hearing musicOM heard music and voicesOC is better offOne liked the music and reminded her of childhoodOther one hated songsWeren't really hearing songsWere having seizure in temporal lobe on side of head associated with auditory memory"musical epilepsy"Had their heads hooked up to wiresEEG: measuring brain waves-Had to raise hand when they heard music-Showed they were having seizures at that time, every time-Donald (19. Murder)He killed someoneWhile he was using PCP, hallucinogenic drug-Auditory and visual drug-Makes them have no idea what is going on around him-He doesn’t know how he was when he killed person-Patients with temporal love amnesia involving hippocampal damage, or loss of connections fromhippocampus to adjacent structures, still show essentially normal implicit memory function. EG:oIf CC'd to show eye blink responses to a CS, they show the CR just as strongly in subsequent tests as do non-amnesic subjectsoIf given practice with new motor skill (tracing a pattern in a mirror), they show normal improvement from session to session-Picture in book of doing puzzle in mirroroThey show emotional conditioning effects similar to normal subjects-Videoclip: Clive's WorldoHis "viral encephalitis" resulted in damage to what 2 areas of his brain (which are important why, as described in lecture)?-Hippocampus-Internal lobeoYour task: identify what specific types of memory strength and memory impairment does Clive demonstrate?-(hw: for each type of memory process reviewed in these lecture notes, specify whether the function if intact of disturbed in Clive)Cant encode, transfer, and consolidate verbal information but has large implicit memory function still-Organic amnesiaoYou cant remember for biological reasonoAKA blackoutoAlcohol can interfere with encoding, transfer, consolidationoCant remember and will not ever rememberoMakes new memory impossibleoDonald was said to have blackout-Wasn’t true-He remembered later-Then was traumatized for rest of life about what he didoHe had retrieval failureoIncorrectly diagnosed with organic amnesia and


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