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UMass Amherst PSYCH 330 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYCH 330 1st EditionExam # 1 StudyGuideLecture #1(January 26th)Understanding the nervous system and brain on surface and micro levels. How does your body communicate? What are the different types of cells in the brain and how do they relate to the body and its processes?Basics on the nervous system:Our nervous system is divided into the central nervous system(CNS) and the peripheral nervous system(PNS). The CNS is composed of just the brain and spinal cord while the PNS is everything else. The PNS is comprised of your nerves that sense the world. The CNS receives messages from the PNS and sends a response back to the PNS. Nerves(PNS) once they travel to the brain are called tracts(CNS). The PNS is split into the somatic and autonomic systems. -Somatic system=cranial/spinal nerves-Autonomic system=sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic system is arousing and responsible for your ‘fight or flight’ response. Parasympathetic is calming and is responsible for ‘rest and digest’The Brain:-Meninges is the protective tissue surrounding the brain. Meninges has 3 layers: the outermost is the pia mater-> arachnoid-> (subarachnoid space filled with cerebral spinal fluid(CSF))-> dia mater that touches the brain-Brain itself is divided into three sections forebrain/midbrain/hindbrain-Forebrain= telencephalon + diencephalon-Telencephalon includes cortex made of white matter(dense areas of axons that are covered in fat) gray matter(dense ares of blood vessels), lobes(frontal[decision making], parietal[movement], temporal[taste/language], occipital[visual processing]),basal ganglia thats involved in movement, amygdala, and hippocampus thats involved in learning/memory -Diencephalon includes the hypothalmus and thalmus -Midbrain= mesencephalon-Mesencephalon includes tectum and tegmentum-Hindbrain=metencephalon + myelencephalon-Metencephalon includes pons and cerebellum-Myelencephalon includes the medulla Lecture 2(January 30th)The brain is made of neurons+glial cellsParts of neurons:-Axons-fibers that connect neurons, one per neuron-Soma=cell body-Dendrites=branches gathering info-Nucleus=many cells gathered to do the same thing-Ganglion=bunches of cells outside the nucleus, makes up PNSTypes of neurons:-Sensory=simplest structure, messenger neurons from body to spine(afferent)-Interneurons=links sensory+motor-Motor Neurons=messages coming from lower brain and spinal cord to body(efferent)Excitatory[yes]/inhibitory[no] neuron signals are the language of neurons. A different signal comes from each cell nearby and the cell chooses the most popular signalGlial Cells:-outnumber neurons-are heavy in fat-insulate, provide nutrients, and support for brain5 types of glial cells:-Ependymal= make up the walls of ventricles and excrete CSF-Astrologia=blood brain barrier, too small for toxins to go through-Astrocytes=star shaped, responsible for scar formation-Microglia=phagocytes that eat dead or infected cells; Possibly disarmed in people with alzheimer's letting the disease run wild-Oligdendricites= wrap around axon, branches onto many axons, sheath is pure fat, myelin sheath describes how many times that fat wraps around. Schwann= surround axons, MS caused by deterioration of schwann cells because they help communication between cells/ruins synchronization of groups of cells needed


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