UNT CJUS 3310 - Ch. 6 (8 pages)

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Ch. 6



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Ch. 6

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Pages:
8
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Cjus 3310 - Org/consensual Crime
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CJUS 3310 Organized and Consensual Crime Latin American Organized Crime On July 21 2011 the U S Department of Justice announced that almost 2 000 persons have been arrested by federal agents on narcotics related charges as part of a 20 month multi agency law enforcement investigation known as Project Delirium The operation targeted La Familia Michoacana drug cartel an organization noted for its extreme level of violence La Familia and other notable Latin American drug cartels will be discussed in this chapter COLOMBIA A common element in Latin American OC is drug trafficking The income generating activities of many Latino OC groups are integrated into a bureaucratic structure it is their sole raison d etre without the subcultural traditions that typify the Sicilian Mafia and outlaw biker clubs Most Latino OC groups import their organizations along with the drugs they sell COLOMBIAN DRUG TRAFFICKING Colombia has been torn by political strife with 5 civil wars in the 19th 20th centuries La Violencia 1948 1958 civil war between wealthy landowners and poor campesinos cost the lives of 300 000 Marxist insurgencies and right wing paramilitaries threaten the stability of the central government Drug traffickers exemplify lack of belief in the legitimacy of the government s political and economic institutions Citizens tolerate violations of the law COLOMBIAN DRUG TRAFFICKING For traffickers the law law enforcement officials U S drug operatives and drug control organizations represent traditional elite international imperialism and other international competitive economic interests Drug barons act as a state within a state Colombians control the cocaine market Well positioned geographically to receive coca from Peru and Bolivia and export the processed drug to the U S Speculative capitalism by Colombia s financial elite provided the resources for development of a cocaine industry THE POLITICS OF DOPE Drug money comes in through an ask no questions central bank attitude and currency exchanges Money laundered through real estate and contraband purchases and some to politicians campaign funds Marxist guerilla forces of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia FARC protect crops and levy taxes on the drug business United Self Defense Forces of Colombia AUC coalition of wealthy landowners ranchers and Colombian military control some coca areas THE POLITICS OF DOPE CONT Los Chamizos Charred Tree paramilitary They kill leftists university professors student activists and trade unionists 1985 2008 2500 union members killed probably by Los Chamizos Reputed to control a drug syndicate that exports 1 billion cocaine to U S and Europe annually The militias are more effective against the guerillas than the government so the populace likes them COLOMBIAN DRUG TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS The term cartel identifies a network whose structure resembles that of a holding company a collection of flexible groups with senior managers The cartels are compartmentalized to control each step required in processing and exporting cocaine There are sections for manufacture transport distribute finance and security Highest levels are insulated away from operations Cartel brokers coordinate or franchise delivery in U S MEDELLIN An industrial and tourist city of 3 million people in the Andes with a culture of violence Home of some of Colombia s most notorious drug traffickers known as Los Grandes Mafiosos The Medellin Cartel Carlos Lehder Rivas the Ochoa clan and Pablo Escobar OCHOA FAMILY Fabio Ochoa Restrepo the paterfamilias owns a country estate with herds of cattle and horses His family business is tied to bullfighting In the 1970s he had financial difficulties His son Jorge worked in importexport in Miami imported cocaine 1981 kidnappings of Lehder Rivas his sister at university and others prompted the Ochoas to call a meeting of traffickers 223 attended and formed a special enforcement section Muertas a Secuestradores Death to the Kidnappers MAS Soon after leaflets publicly announced the enforcement section was for the execution of the kidnappers MUERTAS A SECUESTRADORES MAS The Marxist revolutionary group M 19 was believed to be the kidnappers People believed connected to M 19 were kidnapped tortured and murdered Also murdered were trade unionists old ladies young children pigs horses and chickens University M 19 sympathizers were tortured Two who were on the Colombian army s most wanted list were handed to the military commander amid widespread publicity PABLO ESCOBAR The most notorious member of the Medellin cartel Born poor got wealthy trafficking Robin Hood image Barrio Pablo Escobar built 500 houses soccer fields 1976 headed a group of mules moving coca paste Saw demand for cocaine in U S invested in Peruvian and Bolivian coca paste and coca base and shipped finished product to U S Fleet of planes for transport Killed 1993 rooftop shootout with soldiers and police AMNESTY EXTRADITABLES ASSASSINATION AND LOS PEPES 1980s Medellin bosses offer to Colombian government We will abandon drug business deposit funds in Colombian banks and dismantle drug labs sell chemical and transportation businesses In return they wanted elimination of extradition treaty with U S Colombian government refused So Escobar murdered minister of justice 30 judges and a presidential candidate 4200 bounty for police Police and Los PEPES People Persecuted by Pablo Escobar war against Escobar CALI CARTEL City of 1 5 million people 250 miles south of Medellin Counterfeiting center especially U S currency Loose alliance of 5 major trafficking grups Orejuela brothers and friend born poor used kidnappings to raise 75 000 to enter drug business Cali cartel more artful less violent than Medellin cartel Favored bribery over violence Provided transport distribution enforcement service to smaller traffickers for a fee CALI CARTEL CONT Cali cartel structure Patriarchal stress discipline and loyalty compartmentalized CEO subordinates in charge of acquisition production transportation sales finance enforcement Many overseas branches Cali operations in U S centered in Elmhurst Jackson Heights section of Queens NY 30 000 Colombians banks currency exchanges accessible to airports 1995 Brothers confessed turned over 2 1 billion 2006 Extradited to U S 30 year sentences EVOLUTION OF THE COLOMBIAN DRUG BUSINESS Medellin and Cali cartels were vertically integrated to maintain control over cocaine chain from manufacture to wholesale distribution When cartels


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