UNT CJUS 3310 - Ch. 7 Notes (6 pages)

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Ch. 7 Notes



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Ch. 7 Notes

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6
School:
University of North Texas
Course:
Cjus 3310 - Org/consensual Crime
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CJUS 3310 Organized and Consensual Crime Chapter 7 Black Organized Crime Jamaican crime lord Christopher Dudus Coke faces up to 23 years in prison after pleading guilty to assault and racketeering charges in a New York federal court He admitted to using fear force and intimidation to control the notorious Shower Posse Dudus flourished in Jamaica from early 1990 Jamaicans supported Coke and his criminal enterprises rewarding him with multimillion dollar contracts Black organized crime will be discussed in this chapter AFRICAN AMERICAN ORGANIZED CRIME Race is an imprecise term but like religion can serve as an organizing variable African American criminal groups use the drug trade as much as the Irish Jewish and Italians used bootlegging They did not have the criminal incubation provided by the corrupt political machines or the ineffective federal law enforcement of prior centuries But drugs are an equal opportunity employer AFRICAN AMERICAN OC CONT Important black criminal entrepreneurs operated in the U S in the early decades of the 20th century In Chicago they controlled gambling operations in the city s black belt and delivered votes and funds to Republican mayor Big Bill Thompson They dominated the numbers illegal lottery racket in NY Philadelphia and Chicago Dutch Schultz in NY and Sam GIancana in Chicago forced them out of the lucrative business Bumpy Johnson s organization ruled over the black Harlem underworld until his natural death in 1968 THE VIETNAM WAR AND HEROIN MARKETS African American criminal groups embraced the heroin business when the Vietnam War exposed them to the Golden Triangle markets They bypassed the American Mafia and bought directly from suppliers in Thailand Frank Lucas and his Country Boys were pioneers in this endeavor FRANK LUCAS AND LESLIE IKE ATKINSON In the early 1970s the French Connection was coming apart Lucas cousin a former Army sergeant was running a bar in Bangkok Together they formed a military homeboy organization Atkinson tells a story different from this in particular denying shipping drugs in soldiers coffins as has been claimed by some Lucas lived flamboyantly attracted law enforcement attention turned state s evidence and served time NICKY BARNES In 1977 he posed for a color photo on the front page of the NY Times magazine as Mister Untouchable having beaten government charges 13 times Witnesses disappeared or were found murdered Donated turkeys to homeless shelters Christmas toys for children and sponsored a Harlem basketball team In prison he learned from American Mafia figures who also found him an attorney overturned his conviction Set up a council of major Harlem traffickers Partnered with Lucchese Family dealer Matthew Madonna NICKY BARNES CONT Council members took an oath pooled resources and allocated territories Each kilo of heroin was cut diluted by an assembly line of women who worked naked a precaution against stealing One kilo of heroin was converted into 8 10 kilos Arrested he became a government informant He was not offered early release served 15 years and was released into the Witness Security Program in 1998 GANGSTER DISCIPLES Chicago s best known African American crime group Merger of Supreme Gangsters and Black Disciples Bureaucratic structure similar to early Camorra Larry Hoover serving 150 year sentence leads group from prison Developed a corporate type structure for his organization Vulnerable to prosecution Pool drug profits buy legitimate businesses Political efforts ended in convictions 1995 97 Federal prosecutions decimated the group BLACK P STONE NATION Blackstone Rangers used by adult gangsters as lookouts numbers runners drug couriers protection money collectors and occasionally executioners Complicated relationship with community activists and federal poverty programs Leader Jeff Fort founded El Rukns a Moorish religious organization with a corporate structure Established the Young Grassroots Independent Voters and a real estate company invested in apartment buildings 1991 cocaine indictments convictions Some overturned for prosecutorial misconduct OTHER DOMESTIC AFRICAN AMERICAN CRIMINAL ORGANIZATIONS Skolnick distinguishes 2 gang types Cultural gangs strongly grounded in neighborhood identity members may be involved in crime including drug trafficking Maintained by loyalty to the gang and the neighborhood Entrepreneurial gangs organized for the purpose of distributing drugs Based on continuing economic opportunity OTHER DOMESTIC AFRICAN AMERICAN CRIMINAL ORGANIZATIONS CONT In contrast with the American Mafia African American criminal groups have a disadvantage confinement to the inner city thwarts development of symbiotic community relationships that foster indigenous crime organizations American Mafia OC generated goodwill with community services and keeping predatory crimes out of their own neighborhood African American numbers operators generate goodwill but the drug traffickers prey on their own people CRIPS AND BLOODS Crips 10 000 members are in Los Angeles Seattle other California West Midwest cities Moving eastward establishing drug distribution networks in Baltimore and Washington DC Heavily armed and quick to use violence Bloods smaller similar activities Not rigidly hierarchical Subgroups are independent competitive and violent AFRICA African criminal enterprises developed rapidly since the 1980s due to globalization of the world economy and advances in communication technology Easy international travel expanded world trade and cross border financial transactions enable criminals to target international victims and develop networks in prosperous countries and regions Nigeria example Political social and economic conditions help some enterprises expand globally AFRICA CONT Crime organizations traffic in drugs humans small arms and natural resources and dump toxic waste Guinea Bissau example emerging from decades of conflict illegal drugs swamping the export market making a few very wealthy others stay poor Becoming a narcostate inadequate law enforcement traffickers not sentenced no prison Naval Chief of Staff is U S Treasury designated drug kingpin WEST AFRICAN ORGANIZED CRIME West Africa is attractive for development of crime organizations Wealth inequality high population growth and rapid uncontrolled urbanization OC as a vehicle for rising out of poverty Chronic armed conflict porous borders Inefficient government and corruption WEST AFRICAN ORGANIZED CRIME CONT West Africa is


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