ISU PSY 231 - Final Exam Study Guide (15 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


A copy of all of our notes for this unit along with a question and answer section.

Study Guide
Illinois State University
Psy 231 - Research Methods in Psychology
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PSY 231 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 17 25 Lecture 17 October 21 Examples of Possible Ethical Dilemmas Psychological benefits of exercise benefits understanding of how exercise affects mood and psychopathology symptoms Risks possibility of injury during exercise no more than everyday risk If there is no benefits than any risk is too much Learning from rewards benefits understanding of basic learning processes risks papercuts no big risk Childrens spatial navigation benefits understanding how children process information about the world risks children ages 9 11 they cannot provide informed consent because they are kids The parent guardian has to consent Lecture 18 October 23 Animal Research Today 20 million animals per year used in science plus industry testing 95 rodents also dogs pigs primates insects People Issue Animal yes not whether research is done yes but what kind yes almost no procedure totally forbidden upsetting yes situations shock surgery drugs yes risks to participant vs benefits to science yes yes minimizing risks least risky procedure yes yes social protection informed consent and confidentiality no Animal Research In Psych Species specific behavior patterns bird songs mating patterns Captive animal enrichment behavior problems health management breeding General psychological processes learning memory neuroscience psychopharmacology implications for how we understand people in the everyday world implications for psychological problems Comparative psychology language and numerical abilities in apes and children Animal Welfare Today The Players US government Animal welfare advocating groups humane society people for the ethical treatment for animals PETA animals are not ours to wear eat for entertainment or to experiment on Terrorist groups animal liberation front ALF Major Arguments Against Animal Research Irrelevance interspecies generality Species ism Does might make it right Alternatives exist test tube procedures test on tissue samples computer simulations prisoners clinical trials Animals are better off when not in captivity define better off All of these have serious problems Regulation of Animal Research Animal care and use committee ACUC housing veterinary care research procedures benefits vs pain and suffering humane disposal Lecture 19 October 28 Practical Significance Social importance benefits resulting from applying a research result to influence everyday life Can research results be applied the moon illusion moon looks huge at the horizon and as it rises it looks smaller ways to use the moon illusion to better peoples lives none it is true but it doesn t really matter Should the results be applied is it important for people to see better without their glasses not really an effect can be real but trivial judging practical significance requires a cost benefits analysis that is not completely objective which problems are most important to solve what benefits if this IV is manipulated in the real world how serious a problem What does it cost to manipulate are there other ways to solve the problem Resource limitations Who decides whether research findings will be applied to improve lives public issues affect many people stakeholders those who are affected have expertise or have authority to decide citizens scientists government officials professionals each have different motivation knowledge and ideas about the research implications Lecture 20 October 30 How Research Informs Clinical Ethics Clinical ethics treating clients fairly and safely Research shows that some treatments actually work If they don t work and cause active harm actually make things worse dare program If they do not work and cause passive harm Opportunity cost longer discomfort lost quality of life lost chance to get better Things that do not work always cause harm Traditional Psychotherapy Individual chooses therapist therapist chooses treatment therapist bills health insurance Competence clinical insight the longer you work the better you get New Accountability for Treatment Effectiveness Special education laws started in the 1970 s required clear goals and documented progress De institutionalization of the mentally ill 1970 s family s became more responsible for the care of their mentally ill family member Media age better informed consumers Insurance industry managed care some decisions making shifts from therapist to payer Insurance Company chooses therapist Insurance Company approves specific treatments Therapist bills Insurance Company Insurance company determines amount paid to the therapist quality of therapy and duration of therapy Evidence Based Practice Movement Emphasis on what works Empirical research determines what works Testimonials do not count as evidence nor do case studies correlational research flawed experiments Does Count as Evidence Good clinical treatments randomized controlled trials IV treatment DV treatment outcome Prime evidence the randomized controlled trial subject selection subject assignment internal validity reliable and valid measurement Experimental design presence vs absence no treatment wait list control group type manipulation active treatment treatment as usual control group amount manipulation compare different doses of one treatment Why Therapists Should Care About Bad Evidence Reputation It is depressing to be ineffective less than 10 of treatment is evidence based Bad for business What makes a good therapist old days clinical experience intuition the evidence based approach evidence from clinical research guides choice of therapies therapist skills include searching through the literature and applying the formal rules of evidence Lecture 21 November 4 Effect Size Effect Size What Percent of Group 2 Beats Group 1 s Mean Percent of the Experimental Group That are Harmed Percent Helped 0 50 50 0 2 58 42 8 5 69 31 19 8 79 21 29 1 84 16 34 2 ways for results to be statistically significant almost always true really big mean difference limited overlap small and unreliable small mean difference much overlap really big N Not obvious from p value percent of treated individuals who score better than the control group Goal understand experimental results in terms of reliability effect challenge error variance mean difference is big enough to be impressive despite overlap A standardized tool for weighing mean difference against variance effect size statistics Cohen s d M 1 M 2 SD SD for whole sample Big t small p As meandifference gets bigger

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